Open main menu

wiki β

ACV Gateway - Levels of Automation

The Automated and Connected Vehicle Gateway
Levels of Automation


Level 0:
No Driving Automation

A car has no automated assistance technologies. It may have a traditional fixed speed cruise control that maintains the speed without any automation.

Level 1:
Driver Assistance

Driver assistance technologies available on many modern cars are Level 1, such as adaptive cruise control (ACC) or lane keeping assistance.

A Level 1 system can assist with adjusting speed or steering, and the driver maintains full awareness and control of the vehicle.

Level 2:
Partial Driving Automation

At Level 2, the system will manage both speed and steering under certain conditions, such as highway driving.

The driver still has to pay attention at all times and take over as needed.

Tesla Autopilot, Volvo Pilot Assist, Cadillac Super Cruise are Level 2 systems.

Level 3:
Conditional Driving Automation

A Level 3 vehicle can take full control under specific conditions.

The car controls the speed, steering and also actively monitors the environment when the system is engaged, and will request intervention from the driver if conditions change.

A Level 3 system only requires the driver to pay attention if specifically requested.

Level 4:
High Driving Automation

A car that handles most normal driving tasks on its own, but still requires driver intervention from time to time, for example during poor weather conditions or in unusual environments.

Level 4 vehicles will generally do the driving without requesting driver intervention.

Level 5:
Full Driving Automation

The car can drive itself anytime, anywhere, under any conditions. If there is any human intervention in the driving, it is not Level 5.