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[[en:Technology_Trends/Drones]]
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[[fr:Tendances_Technologiques/Drones]]
  
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               <th>[[Tendances_Technologiques|Tendances Technologiques]]</th>
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               <th>[[Technology_Trends/Drones|Drones]]</th>
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         <th>Version original</th>
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         <td>4 juillet 2019</td>
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         <td>4 juillet 2019</td>
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         <td>July 4, 2019</td>
 
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         <th>Publication officiel</th>
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         <th>Official publication</th>
         <td>[[Media:FR_-_Tendances_Technologiques_-_Drones.pdf|Drones.pdf]]</td>
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         <td>[[Media:EN_-_Technology_Trends_-_Drones.pdf|Drones.pdf]]</td>
 
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   <br><p>Un <b>Drone</b> est le nom communément donné à un aéronef piloté n’ayant aucun humain à bord, mais d’autres noms incluent véhicules aériens sans pilote (VASP), systèmes d'aéronef sans pilote (SASP) ou véhicule aérien non équipé (VANE). Cette technologie est définie comme un robot volant pouvant être contrôlé à distance par un opérateur basé au sol avec un système de communication entre les deux ou capable de voler de manière totalement autonome. Les drones comportent plusieurs capteurs et systèmes de navigation tels qu'un système de positionnement par satellites, des systèmes anti-collisions, une stabilisation gyroscopique, etc. Les drones sont un autre exemple de technologie issue de l'armée, car ils offrent une alternative plus sécuritaire que les personnes. Depuis, ils ont envahi le marché des consommateurs avec des modèles peu coûteux pour des fins récréatives et des modèles plus couteux pour les cinéastes professionnels.</p>
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   <br><p><b>Drone</b> is the common name given to an aircraft piloted without a human on-board, but other names include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), unmanned aircraft systems (UASes) or uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV). This technology is defined as a flying robot that can be controlled remotely by a ground-based operator with a system of communication between the two or that is able to fly completely autonomously. Drones feature several sensors and navigation systems such as a dual global navigation satellite system, collision avoidance systems, gyroscopic stabilization, etc. Drones are another example of a technology that originates from the military as they provide a safer alternative for humans. They have since taken over the consumer market with inexpensive models for recreational purposes and with expensive models for professional aerial cinematographers. </p>
  
 
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   <h2>Sommaire opérationnel</h2>
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   <h2>Business Brief</h2>
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  <p class="inline">While drones can be referred to by various names , Transport Canada uses the technical term Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). An RPA is defined as a navigable aircraft, other than a balloon, rocket, or kite that is operated by a pilot who is not on board.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> An RPA is considered a component of a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS). An RPAS refers to a set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely piloted aircraft, its control station, the command and control links, and any other system elements required during flight operation.</p><p class="inline"> Essentially, a drone can be considered a flying computer that can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously through the use of software working in conjunction with various sensors. Transport Canada uses the term ‘drone’ interchangeably with RPAS. Transport Canada classifies drones by weight into three basic groups, namely:</p>
  
  <p class="inline">Bien que les drones puissent être désignés de diverses façons , Transports Canada emploie le terme technique d’aéronefs télépilotés (RPA).</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Un RPA désigne un aéronef navigable, autre qu’un ballon, une fusée ou un cerf volant, qui est opéré par un pilote qui n’est pas à bord de l’appareil. Un RPA est considéré comme un composant d’un système d’aéronef télépiloté (RPAS). Un RPAS désigne un ensemble d’éléments configurables composé d’un aéronef télépiloté, sa station de commande, les liaisons de commande et tout autre élément de système requis durant une opération en vol.<p class="inline"> Essentiellement, un drone peut être considéré comme un ordinateur volant que l’on peut contrôler à distance ou faire voler de façon autonome à l’aide d’un logiciel qui fonctionne conjointement avec divers capteurs. À Transports Canada les termes « drone » et « RPAS » sont interchangeables.</p>
 
 
  <p>Transports Canada classifie les drones par poids dans les trois catégories de base suivantes :</p>
 
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li>Les drones dont le poids est inférieur à 250 grammes;</li>
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     <li>Drones under 250 grams,</li>
     <li>Les drones dont le poids est égal ou supérieur à 250 grammes jusqu’à 25 kilogrammes;</li>
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     <li>Drones from 250 grams up to and including 25 kilograms, and</li>
     <li>Les drones dont le poids est supérieur à 25 kilogrammes.</li>
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     <li>Drones over 25 kilograms.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
  
   <p class="inline">Transports Canada recommande d’agir de façon responsable lors du pilotage de drones pesant moins de 250 grammes (environ ½ lb), aussi connus sous le nom de microdrones.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Les microdrones ne doivent pas être pilotés près d’aéronefs ou d’aéroports. Aucune personne ou propriété ne doit être mise en danger et l’opérateur ou le pilote doit toujours garder le drone dans son champ de vision lors du pilotage.</p><p class="inline"> Un certificat de pilote n’est pas nécessaire pour opérer un microdrone.</p>
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   <p class="inline">Transport Canada advises that drones weighing less than 250 grams (approx. ½ lbs.), also referred to as micro drones, must be “flown responsibly”.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Micro drones should not be flown near aircraft or airports. People and property must never be placed in danger and the operator/pilot should maintain visual-line-of-sight with the drone when in flight.</p><p class="inline"> A pilot certificate is not required to operate a micro drone.</p>
  
   <p>Les opérateurs ou les pilotes doivent obtenir un certificat de pilote de drone pour les drones qui pèsent de 250 grammes à 25 kg (environ 55 lb). Il existe deux types de certificats de pilote offerts par Transports Canada et ils sont déterminés en fonction des catégories d’opérations. Par exemple, un pilote qui effectue des opérations de base doit toujours maintenir son appareil à plus de 30 mètres de distance des passants et seulement dans des espaces aériens non contrôlés opérations nécessitant un certificat d’opérations de base. Un pilote qui effectue des opérations avancées peut piloter à moins de 30 mètres de distance des passants et des espaces aériens contrôlés opérations nécessitant un certificat d’opérations avancées.</p>
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   <p>Operators/pilots must obtain a drone pilot certificate for drones that weigh between 250 grams and 25 kg (approx. 55 lbs.). There are two types of pilot certificates available from Transport Canada and they are based on categories of operation. For example, a pilot conducting basic operations must always fly more than 30 m away from bystanders and only in uncontrolled airspace requiring  a basic operations certificate. A pilot conducting advanced operations may fly less than 30 m from and over bystanders and in controlled airspace requiring an advanced operations certificate.</p>
  
   <p>De plus, une permission spéciale (c. à d. un certificat d’opérations aériennes spécialisées) de Transports Canada est nécessaire avant de piloter un drone pesant plus de 25 kilogrammes.</p>
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   <p>Additionally, drones that weigh over 25 kilograms require special permission (i.e. a special flight operations certificate) from Transport Canada before they are flown.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Les drones peuvent être de différentes tailles et offrir une multitude de capacités. Par exemple, la United States Air Force utilise des drones de grande taille, soit la taille d’un aéronef piloté normal</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> (p. ex., les drones Predator et Reaper utilisés pour la surveillance ou comme plates formes de munition). La United States Army utilise des microdrones de la taille d’un rouleau de 25 cents (p. ex., le drone Black Hornet Nano qui contient une minuscule caméra permettant aux troupes au sol d’être au fait de la situation locale du haut des airs). Les drones ont parfois des ailes fixes et nécessitent une courte piste pour décoller (p. ex., divers types de modèles réduits d’avions radiocommandés) ou encore des hélices comme un hélicoptère et peuvent décoller à la verticale, voler, se mettre en vol stationnaire et atterrir à la verticale (p. ex., les quadricoptères). Ces types de drones sont généralement accessibles au grand public et sont principalement utilisés à des fins récréatives et commerciales.</p>
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   <p class="inline">Drones can come in a wide variety of sizes and have just as many capabilities. For example, the United States Air Force uses large drones the size of normal manned aircraft</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> (i.e. the Predator and Reaper drones used for surveillance and/or as a munitions platforms). The United States Army uses micro drones the size of a role of quarters (i.e. the Black Hornet Nano drone contains a tiny camera which provides troops on the ground with local aerial situational awareness). Drones can have fixed wings and require short runways to take-off (i.e. various types of radio-controlled model aircraft) or drones can have rotors like a helicopter and can take-off vertically, fly, hover, and land vertically (e.g. quadcopters). These are the types of drones that are commonly available to the public and are primarily used for recreational and commercial purposes.</p>
  
   <h2>Sommaire technique</h2>
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   <h2>Technology Brief</h2>
  
   <p class="inline">Les drones et la technologie des drones sont en constante évolution, car les innovations et les nouveaux investissements permettent de réaliser des progrès. Un drone type est fait de matériaux composites légers pour réduire le poids et améliorer la manœuvrabilité.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Étant donné que les drones n’ont pas besoin d’espace pour les opérateurs et les pilotes humains, le corps du drone contient habituellement la technologie. La technologie du drone désigne tout ce qui concerne les caractéristiques aérodynamiques du drone, les matériaux de fabrication du drone physique, les circuits imprimés, les jeux de puces, les logiciels et le système de communications.</p><p class="inline"> Les drones peuvent être munis d’autres dispositifs technologiques comme divers types de caméras, un système de localisation (GPS), des lasers, divers types de capteurs et même être munis d’armes. Les drones peuvent également fonctionner à divers degrés d’autonomie, soit au moyen d’une télécommande contrôlée par un opérateur ou un pilote humain, soit de façon indépendante contrôlée par des ordinateurs à bord.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Les systèmes de contrôle au sol à distance qui permettent de contrôler les drones sont généralement appelés postes de pilotage au sol.</p>
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   <p class="inline">Drones, and the technology related to drones, are constantly evolving as new innovation and investment lead to advancements. A typical drone is made of light composite materials to reduce weight and increase maneuverability.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Since drones do not have a need to accommodate human operators/pilots, the body of a drone typically contains the technology. Drone technology refers to everything from the aerodynamics of the drone, materials in the manufacture of the physical drone, to the circuit boards, chipset, software, and communications system.</p><p class="inline"> Drones can be equipped with additional technology such as various types of cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS), lasers, various types of sensors, and even weapons. Drones can also operate with various degrees of autonomy, either under remote control by a human operator/pilot or autonomously by on-board computers.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> The remote Ground Control Systems (GSC) that control drones are typically referred to as a ground cockpits.</p>
  
   <p>Les drones peuvent contenir une multitude de technologies, notamment les suivantes :</p>
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   <p>Drones can contain a multitude of technology, including:</p>
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li><b>Localisation par satellite</b> – l’utilisation de systèmes mondiaux de satellites de navigation (GLONASS) comme un GPS pour faciliter la navigation du drone.</li>
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     <li><b>Satellite Positioning</b> – the use of Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS to aid in drone navigation.</li>
     <li><b>Détection des obstacles et évitement des collisions</b> – les systèmes de vision utilisent des capteurs de détection d’obstacles (p. ex., ultrasoniques, infrarouges) pour balayer les environs afin d’éviter les objets.</li>
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     <li><b>Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance</b> – vision systems use obstacle detection sensors (e.g. ultrasonic, infrared, etc.) to scan surroundings in order to avoid objects.</li>
     <li><b>Stabilisation par gyroscope, unité de mesure inertielle et commandes de vols</b> – ces technologies sont des composantes qui fonctionnent conjointement afin d’offrir au drone des capacités de vol harmonisées.</li>
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     <li><b>Gyro Stabilization, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Flight Controller</b> – these technologies are components that work together in order to give drones their smooth flight capabilities.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
 
   <ul class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
   <ul class="mw-collapsible-content">
     <li class="expand"><b>Direction du moteur et design des hélices de drone</b> – ces composantes permettent aux drones de voyager dans l’air et de voler dans n’importe quelle direction ou de se mettre en vol stationnaire.</li>
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     <li class="expand"><b>Drone Motor Direction And Propeller Design</b> – these components enable drones to move through the air and to fly in any direction or hover.</li>
     <li class="expand"><b>Boussole interne et fonction de sécurité intégrée</b> – permet aux drones de retourner dans un endroit sécuritaire en cas de perte de signal entre le drone et le système de commandes au sol.</li>
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     <li class="expand"><b>Internal Compass & Failsafe Function</b> – enables drones to return to a safe location in case of a loss of signal between the drone and the ground control system.</li>
     <li class="expand"><b>Indicateurs de vol à DEL</b> – permet à l’opérateur ou au pilote de connaître l’orientation du drone en vol.</li>
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     <li class="expand"><b>LED Flight Indicators</b> – allows the operator/pilot to know the orientation of the drone in flight.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li><b>Application de téléphone intelligent comportant une fonction de système de contrôle au sol</b> – de nombreux drones peuvent être pilotés à partir d’une application de téléphone intelligent connectée au drone à l’aide de la technologie Bluetooth, d’un réseau Wi Fi ou de réseaux cellulaires comme le 4G (LTE) ou le 5G.</li>
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     <li><b>Smartphone App featuring Ground Control System Function</b> – many drones can be flown from a smartphone app connected to the drone via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or over cellular networks like 4G (LTE) or 5G.</li>
     <li><b>Caméras et transmission vidéo en direct</b> – une caméra vidéo montée sur un drone peut offrir la capacité de diffuser une vidéo en direct à l’intention de l’opérateur ou du pilote au sol.</li>
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     <li><b>Cameras and Live Video Transmission</b> – a video camera mounted on a drone can have the ability to broadcast live video to the operator/pilot on the ground.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
 
   <ul class="mw-collapsible-content">
 
   <ul class="mw-collapsible-content">
     <li class="expand"><b>Cardans et commandes d’inclinaison</b> – permet d’empêcher les vibrations du drone d’atteindre la caméra et de créer des angles vidéo uniques pendant le vol du drone.</li>
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     <li class="expand"><b>Gimbals & Tilt Control</b> – allows for any vibration from the drone to not reach the camera and to create unique video angles while the drone is in flight.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li><b>Drones avec capteurs</b> – peuvent être utilisés pour créer des modèles 3D de bâtiments, de paysages, etc., afin de recueillir et de fournir des données de précision aux utilisateurs.</li>
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     <li><b>Drones with Sensors</b> – can be used to create 3D models of buildings, landscapes, etc., to collect and provide precision data to users.</li>
     <li><b>Sécurité du drone</b> – les drones sont semblables à des ordinateurs volants et pour cette raison, ils sont vulnérables au piratage ainsi qu’à d’autres cyberattaques ou interférences.</li>
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     <li><b>Drone Security</b> – in some ways drones are like flying computers and as such are susceptible to hacking and other cyber-attacks or interference.</li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
  
   <h2>Utilisation par l'industrie</h2>
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   <h2>Industry Use</h2>
 
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   <p class="inline">According to a 2016 report by Goldman Sachs Research, between 2016 and 2020, the market opportunity for drones is forecast to grow to $100 billion.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> While the military share of this market will remain strong, further growth will be driven by further demand in the commercial and government sectors, specifically in construction, agriculture, insurance claims, oil and gas (aerial inspections), police, fire, search and rescue, journalism, boarder protection, and cinematography.</p>
   <p class="inline">Selon un rapport de 2016 découlant d’une étude de Goldman Sachs, de 2016 à 2020, les occasions d’affaires pour les drones devraient atteindre 100 milliards de dollars.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> La part de marché des forces armées demeurera importante, mais la croissance continue sera attribuable à l’augmentation de la demande dans les secteurs commerciaux et gouvernementaux, surtout dans les domaines de la construction, de l’agriculture, des réclamations d’assurance, du pétrole et du gaz (inspections aériennes), des services de police, des services d’incendie, des missions de recherche et de sauvetage, du journalisme, de la protection des frontières et de la cinématographie.</p>
 
  
 
   <div class="mw-collapsible-content imageDisplay">
 
   <div class="mw-collapsible-content imageDisplay">
     [[File:Tendances_Technologiques_-_Drones_Hype_Cycle.png|center]]
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     [[File:Technology_Trends_-_Drones_Market_Value.png|center]]
     <p class="source">Source : Drones: Reporting for work (en anglais seulement). Étude de Goldman Sachs, 2016.</p>
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     <p class="source">Source: “Drones: Reporting for work”. Goldman Sachs Research, 2016.</p>
 
   </div>
 
   </div>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">La croissance de l’industrie des drones a souvent été trop rapide pour l’élaboration de règlements gouvernementaux et de systèmes visant à régir leur utilisation. Cette incertitude nuit à l’innovation et à l’adoption commerciale, mais les précisions à apporter à la réglementation devraient faire augmenter la demande. Par exemple, la National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) dirige une initiative de plusieurs milliards de dollars pour créer un système de gestion de l’administration de l’espace aérien des États Unis (souvent appelé système de gestion du trafic sans pilote [UTM]) permettant de coordonner de façon sécuritaire les vols avec et sans pilote, tandis que la Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) devrait assouplir davantage les restrictions qui empêchent l’exploitation du plein potentiel des drones commerciaux.</p>
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   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">The rapid growth of the drone industry has often outpaced the development of government regulations and systems to govern their use. This uncertainty weighs on innovation and commercial adoption, but anticipated regulatory clarity should lead to increased demand. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a multibillion-dollar effort to develop a United States airspace management system (often referred to as an Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) system) capable of safely coordinating manned and unmanned flights, while the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is expected to further ease restrictions that are keeping commercial drones from reaching their full potential.</p>
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  <p>A 2017 market analysis report on drones by Business Insider (BI) Intelligence identified that the market for commercial and consumer drones will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 19% between 2015 and 2020, compared with 5% growth for the military market. BI Intelligence expects sales of drones to surpass $12 billion in 2021. That is up by a compound annual growth rate of 7.6% from $8.5 billion in 2016. BI Intelligence predicts future growth across the consumer, commercial, and government markets. The report concludes that the commercial market will be the segment that drives the industry.</p>
  
   <p>Produit par Business Insider (BI) Intelligence, un rapport d’analyse du marché de 2017 sur les drones a révélé que le marché commercial et de consommation des drones se développera à un taux de croissance annuelle composé de 19 p. cent de 2015 à 2020, par rapport à un taux de croissance de 5 p. cent pour le marché des Forces armées. BI Intelligence prédit que les ventes de drones dépasseront 12 milliards de dollars en 2021, ce qui représente une hausse du taux de croissance annuel composé de 7,6 p. cent par rapport à 8,5 milliards de dollars en 2016. BI Intelligence prédit une croissance future pour les marchés de consommation, commerciaux et gouvernementaux. Le rapport conclut que le marché commercial sera le segment le plus actif de l’industrie.</p>
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   <p>The largest producer of drones for the consumer market is the Chinese-based company DJI Technologies Co. In 2017, DJI accounted for over 70% of the consumer drone market with revenues of approximately $2.7 billion.</p>
  
   <p>Le plus important producteur de drones pour le marché de consommation est la société chinoise DJI Technologies Co. En 2017, DJI détenait plus de 70 p. cent des parts du marché de consommation des drones avec des recettes de près de 2,7 milliards de dollars.</p>
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   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">As for military drones, Israel and the United States make up more than 80% of all military drone exports worldwide, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Most military drones are for surveillance, but several countries already have military drones capable of carrying out combat missions – a number that is expected to rise in the coming years.</p>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Pour ce qui est des drones militaires, Israël et les États Unis comptent pour plus de 80 p. cent de toutes les exportations mondiales de drones militaires, selon le Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. La majorité des drones militaires sont utilisés aux fins de surveillance, mais plusieurs pays ont déjà des drones militaires permettant de réaliser des missions de combat et ce nombre devrait augmenter au cours des prochaines années.</p>
+
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Research from Forrester (2017) also predicts that drone usage and deployment will be pervasive across all industries. Drone regulations will continue to evolve and will continue to introduce new opportunities for further applications.</p>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Une étude menée par la firme Forrester (2017) prévoyait également que l’utilisation et le déploiement des drones seront omniprésents dans toutes les industries. Les règlements sur les drones continueront d’évoluer et de nouvelles possibilités d’utilisations futures continueront d’être proposées.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Within the Canadian marketplace, Unmanned Systems Canada (USC) –a not-for-profit organization, acts as the national industry association representing entrepreneurs, businesses, students, academia, industry, and government organizations working in the aerial, ground, and marine remotely-piloted and unmanned vehicle systems sector.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> USC has the objective to strive for a strong, single voice that advocates for safety, high professional standards, industry collaboration and a stable, responsive regulatory framework. Transport Canada engaged with USC during the development of new regulations for drones, which are discussed in the following section.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Sur le marché canadien, Systèmes télécommandés Canada, un organisme à but non lucratif, agit à titre d’association nationale de l’industrie représentant les entrepreneurs, les entreprises, les étudiants, le milieu universitaire ainsi que les organisations industrielles et gouvernementales qui œuvrent dans le secteur des systèmes de véhicules aériens, terrestres et maritimes pilotés à distance ou sans pilote.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Systèmes télécommandés Canada a comme objectif de promouvoir une position unique et efficace en matière de défense de normes de sécurité très professionnelles, la collaboration au sein de l’industrie et un cadre de réglementation stable et adapté. Transports Canada a sollicité la participation de Systèmes télécommandés Canada durant l’élaboration de nouveaux règlements sur les drones, dont il est question dans la section suivante.</p>
+
   <h2>Canadian Government Use</h2>
  
   <h2>Utilisation par le gouvernement du Canada</h2>
+
   <p>Drones offer almost endless use in their application to public service operations. From performing regular safety inspections on infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and power lines, to carrying out potentially life-saving public safety missions, the right drone can make all the difference in optimizing operations across a huge scope of different government uses.</p>
  
   <p>Les drones offrent une gamme infinie d’utilisations différentes dans le cadre des opérations de la fonction publique. De la réalisation d’inspections de sécurité régulières des infrastructures comme les routes, les ponts et les lignes électriques, à l’exécution de missions de sécurité publique permettant de sauver des vies, le bon drone peut faire toute la différence pour optimiser les opérations d’une grande partie des différents usages qu’en fait le gouvernement.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Transport Canada estimates that the number of drones flown in Canada is approximately 193,500. By comparison, it is estimated that there are 37,000 aircraft in traditional aviation, including commercial passenger and cargo aircraft and general aviation aircraft in Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> The growth in drone usage has brought new entrants to aviation. Transport Canada no longer deals solely with the typical industries such as aerospace manufacturers, airlines, and airplane pilots. New entrants include commercial drone operators/pilots, manufacturers, training providers, law enforcement, and academia. Unlike persons who are traditionally involved in aviation, such as commercial airline pilots and military pilots, new entrants have varying levels of aviation safety awareness, may never have flown traditional aircraft before, and may be unfamiliar with safety-related aviation rules and regulations.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Transports Canada estime que le nombre de drones pilotés au Canada est d’environ 193 500. En comparaison, on estime à 37 000 le nombre d’aéronefs dans le milieu de l’aviation traditionnelle au Canada, y compris les avions commerciaux de passagers, les avions­cargo et les aéronefs d’aviation générale.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> La croissance de l’usage de drones a donné lieu à de nouveaux venus dans le milieu de l’aviation. Transports Canada ne s’occupe plus uniquement des industries traditionnelles comme les fabricants de produits aérospatiaux, les compagnies aériennes et les pilotes d’avion. Ces nouveaux venus comprennent notamment les opérateurs et les pilotes de drones commerciaux, les fabricants, les fournisseurs de formation, les forces de l’ordre et le milieu universitaire. Contrairement aux intervenants habituels du milieu de l’aviation, comme les pilotes d’avions commerciaux et les pilotes militaires, les nouveaux venus ont des degrés variables de connaissance de la sécurité aérienne, n’ont parfois jamais piloté d’avion traditionnel auparavant ou ne connaissent pas bien les règles et la réglementation en matière de sécurité aérienne.</p>
+
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Flying a drone has quickly become a pastime. As of 2018, the recreational drone community in Canada is estimated at 140,800 operators and is projected to increase to 225,500 operators by 2025. That being said, the minimalistic requirements under the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) for recreational operators/pilots has resulted in a number of incidents (which are often associated with a lack of user knowledge) and a growing risk to aviation safety as well as to people on the ground. Since 2014, the number of drone-related incidents reported to Transport Canada has risen over 200%. Incidents have included risks to traditional aircraft while they are on take-off or landing near airports, high altitude flights, and risk of injury to people on the ground caused by events such as a ‘fly-away’, which generally means that a pilot cannot maintain control of the drone or that it ceases to follow pre-programmed procedures.</p>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Le pilotage d’un drone est vite devenu un loisir. En 2018, on estimait la communauté des drones récréatifs au Canada à 140 800 opérateurs et elle devrait augmenter à 225 500 opérateurs d’ici 2025 . Ceci étant dit, les exigences minimalistes du Règlement de l’aviation canadien (RAC) visant les opérateurs et les pilotes récréatifs ont entraîné un certain nombre d’incidents (qui sont souvent associés au manque de connaissances de l’utilisateur) et ont accru le risque pour la sécurité aérienne ainsi que pour les personnes se trouvant au sol. Depuis 2014, le nombre d’incidents liés à des drones signalés à Transports Canada a augmenté de plus 200 p cent . Ces incidents comprenaient notamment des dangers pour les aéronefs traditionnels lors du décollage et de l’atterrissage près des aéroports, les vols en haute altitude et le risque de blessure pour les personnes qui se trouvent au sol causé par des événements tels que la perte de contrôle du vol, ce qui signifie généralement que le pilote ne maîtrise plus le drone ou que ce dernier cesse de répondre aux procédures préprogrammées.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">The growing drone industry has significant economic potential for Canada, however, until recent years there has been no specific set of regulations in place to require the safe operation of drones in Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Existing CARs did not provide a regulatory framework that promotes the economic potential of drones nor did it contain modern, risk- and performance-based regulations that can uphold aviation safety. To date, Transport Canada has been overseeing commercial drone operations on a case-by-case basis using certain CARs provisions that were not designed specifically for drones in order to mitigate aviation safety risks. This approach has been complex, inefficient, and in some cases overly restrictive.</p><p class="inline"> Transport Canada recognized that in the absence of any regulatory change, risks to aviation and public safety would continue to rise in step with the growth in popularity of drones.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">L’industrie grandissante des drones présente un potentiel économique important pour le Canada, cependant, jusqu’à ces dernières années, aucune réglementation particulière n’avait été mise en place pour exiger l’utilisation sécuritaire des drones au Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Le RAC existant n’offrait pas de cadre réglementaire favorisant le potentiel économique des drones et ne contenait pas non plus de réglementation moderne, axée sur les risques et les performances, qui puisse assurer la sécurité aérienne. Jusqu’à présent, Transports Canada a supervisé les opérations des drones commerciaux au cas par cas, conformément à certaines dispositions du RAC qui n’ont pas été conçues spécifiquement pour les drones afin d’atténuer les risques pour la sécurité aérienne. Cette approche s’est avérée complexe, inefficace et, dans certains cas, trop restrictive.</p><p class="inline"> Transports Canada a reconnu qu’en l’absence de tout changement réglementaire, les risques pour la sécurité aérienne et la sécurité publique continueraient d’augmenter avec la popularité croissante des drones.</p>
+
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Canadian civil aviation is the responsibility of the Minister of Transport under the Aeronautics Act (the Act). Under the Act, the Minister is responsible for the development of regulations governing aeronautics and the supervision of all matters connected with aeronautics. In 2017, the Minister of Transport made an Interim Order (IO) under the Act to address the growing number of incidents related to drones. The objective of the IO was to improve aviation safety, to protect the public and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft. It was a temporary measure (renewed in June 2018) until new regulations could be put in place to require the safe operation of drones.</p>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">L’aviation civile canadienne relève du ministre des Transports en vertu de la Loi sur l’aéronautique (la Loi). En vertu de la Loi, le ministre est responsable de l’élaboration des règlements régissant l’aéronautique et de la supervision de toutes les questions liées à l’aéronautique. En 2017, le ministre des Transports a émis une ordonnance provisoire en vertu de la Loi pour régler le nombre croissant d’incidents liés aux drones. L’objectif de cette ordonnance provisoire était d’améliorer la sécurité aérienne, de protéger le public et d’assurer l’exploitation sûre des aéronefs. Il s’agissait d’une mesure temporaire (renouvelée en juin 2018) jusqu’à ce que de nouveaux règlements puissent être mis en place pour exiger l’exploitation sécuritaire des drones.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">In an effort to address on-going issues, in January 2019, Transport Canada published new regulations for flying drones in Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> These regulations will come into effect on June 1, 2019, will amend existing CARs and are intended to provide improved regulatory predictability for businesses and to reduce risks related to aviation safety. These regulations will move away from the case-by-case treatment of non-recreational drone operations by eliminating a number of Special Flight Operations Certificates (SFOC) requirements for drone operations.</p><p class="inline"> This will create a predictable and flexible regulatory environment conducive to long-term planning while reducing costly administrative burdens on businesses. The amendments are also intended to reduce risks to public safety through pilot certification and will also introduce drone safety-based manufacturing requirements intended for certain operations.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">En janvier 2019, Transports Canada a publié un nouveau règlement sur les drones volants au Canada, dans le but de régler les problèmes actuels.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Ce règlement, qui entrera en vigueur le 1er juin 2019, modifiera le RAC actuel et vise à améliorer la prévisibilité réglementaire pour les entreprises ainsi qu’à réduire les risques liés à la sécurité aérienne. Ce règlement s’éloignera du traitement au cas par cas des opérations de drones non récréatives en éliminant un certain nombre d’exigences relatives aux certificats d’opérations aériennes spécialisées (COAS) pour ces opérations,</p><p class="inline"> ce qui permettra de créer un environnement réglementaire prévisible et souple propice à la planification à long terme, tout en réduisant les charges administratives coûteuses pour les entreprises. Les modifications visent également à réduire les risques pour la sécurité publique grâce à la certification des pilotes et intégreront aussi des exigences de fabrication fondées sur la sécurité des drones pour certaines opérations.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">These new regulations are not intended to impede innovations in the use of drone technology, such as Amazon’s drone parcel delivery to residential areas. Transport Canada has indicated that these regulations do not touch upon privacy related issues since Canada already has in place laws that protect privacy.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Enforcing these new regulations will be carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), as well as other provincial and local police forces.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Ce nouveau règlement n’a pas pour but d’entraver les innovations dans l’utilisation de la technologie des drones, comme la livraison de colis par drone d’Amazon dans les zones résidentielles. Transports Canada a indiqué que ce règlement n’aborde pas les questions liées à la protection de la vie privée puisque le Canada a déjà adopté des lois qui protègent la vie privée.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> L’application de ces nouveaux règlements sera assurée par la Gendarmerie royale du Canada (GRC) ainsi que par d’autres services de police provinciaux et locaux.</p>
+
   <h2>Implications for Government Agencies</h2>
 +
  <h3>Shared Services Canada (SSC)</h3>
  
   <h2>Répercussions pour les agences gouvernementales</h2>
+
   <h4>Value Proposition</h4>
  <h3>Services partagés Canada (SPC)</h3>
 
  
   <h4>Proposition de valeur</h4>
+
   <p>Broadly speaking there are a number of value propositions in terms of drones and drone technology that federal organizations should be aware of, namely:</p>
  
  <p>D’une manière générale, les organisations fédérales devraient être au courant d’un certain nombre de propositions de valeur en ce qui concerne les drones et la technologie qui s’y rattache, à savoir :</p>
 
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li><b>Les drones pourraient offrir une meilleure capacité de surveillance :</b>
+
     <li><b>Drones could offer improved monitoring:</b>
 
       <ul>
 
       <ul>
         <li>Alors que les capacités de vidéosurveillance et d’analyse augmentent, les drones et la technologie qui s’y rattache ont le potentiel d’influencer les modes traditionnels de vidéosurveillance. Ainsi, les coûts d’installation et d’entretien des systèmes fixes traditionnels pourraient être réduits. SPC devrait envisager d’approuver la technologie des drones comme moyen d’améliorer et d’augmenter les systèmes existants.</li>
+
         <li>As video monitoring and analytics capabilities are growing, drones and drone technology has the potential to upend traditional modes of video surveillance. This could reduce installation costs and maintenance of traditional fixed systems. SSC should look to supporting drone technology as a means to improve/augment legacy systems.</li>
         <li>Les drones pourraient également devenir un nouveau moyen de collecte de données. L’analyse des nouvelles données recueillies par les drones pourrait fournir de nouvelles perspectives et informations utiles aux ministères. SPC devrait explorer la meilleure façon de traiter un volume accru de données.</li>
+
         <li>Drones could also become a new vehicle for data collection. Analysis of this new data gathered by drones could provide new perspectives and insights to government departments. SSC should consider how best to handle an increased volume of data.</li>
 
       </ul>
 
       </ul>
 
     </li>
 
     </li>
     <li><b>Les drones pourraient permettre d’automatiser et d’augmenter la sécurité physique :</b>
+
     <li><b>Drones could automate and augment physical security:</b>
       <ul>
+
       <ul><li>The mobile nature of drones has its advantages over fixed physical security options. SSC should consider customer requests to upgrade existing systems that afford greater flexibility and reduced cost options.</li></ul>
        <li>La nature mobile des drones a ses avantages par rapport aux options de sécurité physique fixe. SPC devrait tenir compte des demandes des clients visant la mise à niveau des systèmes existants afin d’offrir une plus grande souplesse et des options à coût réduit.</li>
 
      </ul>
 
 
     </li>
 
     </li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
  
   <p>En ce qui concerne la croissance des drones et de la technologie des drones, un certain nombre d’aspects positifs doivent être pris en considération par SPC. En tant que fournisseur de services d’infrastructure de technologie de l’information (TI) pour le gouvernement du Canada (GC), SPC est en position idéale pour tirer parti des forces existantes et saisir les occasions qui se présentent.</p>
+
   <p>With respect to the growth of drones and drone technology, there are a number of positive aspects to note for SSC. As the information technology (IT) infrastructure service provider for the Government of Canada, SSC is ideally positioned to capitalize on existing strengths and to seize opportunities.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Au sein de SPC, le Ministère possède une expertise approfondie et étendue en matière de TI. SPC compte plus de 5 800 employés, dont la majorité sont des spécialistes en systèmes informatiques.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Ces spécialistes ont des études, une expérience et une formation spécialisées dans divers aspects de la TI et des systèmes informatiques. Ils travaillent à fournir au GC une infrastructure de TI moderne, fiable et sécuritaire. SPC gère de nouveaux grands centres de données d’entreprise à la fine pointe de la technologie utilisés dans l’ensemble du gouvernement. Ces centres de données permettent à SPC de protéger l’infrastructure de TI qui est la pierre angulaire de la sécurité, de la sûreté et du bien être des Canadiens, 24 heures par jour, 365 jours par année. En outre, SPC offre également des services d’infonuagique publics à ses clients. L’infonuagique améliore les services offerts aux Canadiens en augmentant la réactivité, la souplesse et l’optimisation des ressources des applications utilisées pour la prestation des programmes et des services.</p><p class="inline"> L’ensemble de ces éléments positifs place SPC en bonne position pour relever le défi de répondre aux futures demandes de soutien des clients en matière de drones.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Internal to SSC, the Department has an existing depth and breadth of IT expertise. SSC has over 5,800 employees, the majority of which are computer systems experts. These experts have specialized education, experience and training in various aspects of information technology and computer systems.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> These experts work to provide a modern, reliable, and secure information technology infrastructure for the Government of Canada. SSC maintains new, large, state-of-the art enterprise data centres that serve the entire government. These data centers enable SSC to protect the IT infrastructure that is the IT backbone of the safety, security, and well being of Canadians, 24 hours a day, 356 days a year. Additionally, SSC also offers public cloud computing services for its customers. Cloud computing improves services to Canadians by increasing the responsiveness, flexibility, and value for money of the applications used to deliver programs and services.</p><p class="inline"> All combined, these positive elements position SSC nicely to face the challenges of delivering on future customer requests for drone support.</p>
  
   <p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content">À l’extérieur de SPC, la demande de drones de la part des clients de SPC en est encore à ses balbutiements.</p><p class="inline"> Les demandes des clients de SPC pour obtenir du soutien concernant les drones et la technologie des drones ont été minimes. Par conséquent, il est encore temps pour SPC de commencer à se préparer à une demande accrue de soutien de la part de ses clients. De plus, la nature de la technologie des drones a le potentiel de générer des gains d’efficacité et de réduire les coûts.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Les drones peuvent être plus efficaces pour le GC dans des environnements où il est difficile ou dangereux pour l’homme de fonctionner. Par exemple, il pourrait être plus efficace d’utiliser des drones avec des caméras plutôt que des hélicoptères avec des observateurs humains. Bien qu’il existe d’autres gains nets d’efficacité potentiels pour le GC, on n’a pas encore déterminé si cela peut se traduire par une augmentation des coûts pour SPC en ce qui concerne le soutien des services de TI.</p>
+
   <p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content">External to SSC, the demand for drones from SSC’s customers is still in its infancy.</p><p class="inline"> Requests from SSC’s customers for support of drones and drone technology has been minimal. Therefore, there is still time for SSC to begin to ramp-up for an increased demand for support from its customers. Additionally the nature of drone technology has the potential to generate efficiencies and reduce costs.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Drones can be more effective for the GC to use in environments where it is difficult and/or dangerous for humans to operate. For example, there could be potential efficiencies to use drones with cameras in place of helicopters with human observers. While there could be other net efficiencies for the Government of Canada, it is unclear if this could mean increased costs to SSC in terms of IT service support.</p>
  
   <h4>Difficultés</h4>
+
   <h4>Challenges</h4>
  
   <p>D’une manière générale, les organisations fédérales devraient être au courant d’un certain nombre de difficultés ayant de fortes répercussions concernant les drones et la technologie qui s’y rattache, à savoir :</p>
+
   <p>Broadly speaking, there are a number of high-impact challenges in terms of drones and drone technology that federal organizations should be aware of, namely:</p>
 
   <ul>
 
   <ul>
     <li><b>Les drones pourraient être compromis :</b>
+
     <li><b>Drones could be compromised:</b>
       <ul>
+
       <ul><li>Drones are vulnerable to hackers and significantly increase the attack surface that organizations must defend. SSC should view drones as another integrated hardware and software endpoint that requires essential security controls, access management, monitoring, patching, and updating.</li></ul>
        <li>Les drones sont vulnérables aux pirates informatiques et augmentent considérablement la surface d’attaque que les organisations doivent défendre. SPC devrait considérer les drones comme un autre point d’accès matériel et logiciel intégré qui nécessite des contrôles de sécurité, une gestion des accès, une surveillance, des correctifs et des mises à jour essentiels.</li>
 
      </ul>
 
 
     </li>
 
     </li>
     <li><b>Les drones pourraient s’écraser ou nuire à des opérations critiques :</b>
+
     <li><b>Drones could crash and/or impact critical operations:</b>
       <ul>
+
       <ul><li>With the increased use of drones, so too is there an increase in the number of drone crashes. SSC and its customers should be aware of the potential liabilities that can result from a drone incident and the potential impact on critical operations.</li></ul>
        <li>Avec l’utilisation accrue des drones, le nombre d’accidents de drones augmente également. SPC et ses clients devraient être conscients des responsabilités potentielles qui peuvent résulter d’un incident de drone et des répercussions potentielles sur les opérations critiques.</li>
 
      </ul>
 
 
     </li>
 
     </li>
     <li><b>Les drones pourraient créer des problèmes liés à la protection de la vie privée :</b>
+
     <li><b>Drones could create privacy concerns:</b>
       <ul>
+
       <ul><li>There are numerous issues surrounding aerial surveillance and privacy rights. SSC and its customers should be aware of the legal and regulatory landscape and act in accordance with it.</li></ul>
        <li>La surveillance aérienne et le droit à la vie privée soulèvent de nombreuses questions. SPC et ses clients doivent connaître le contexte juridique et réglementaire et s’y conformer.</li>
 
      </ul>
 
 
     </li>
 
     </li>
 
   </ul>
 
   </ul>
  
   <p class="inline">En ce qui concerne la croissance des drones et de la technologie des drones, un certain nombre d’aspects négatifs doivent également être pris en considération par SPC. Au sein de SPC, le Ministère continue de faire face à des difficultés liées à la modernisation de l’infrastructure de TI du GC. Le remplacement continu des systèmes de TI vieillissants pourrait avoir une incidence sur la capacité de SPC d’offrir ses services.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Bien que SPC travaille actuellement avec diligence à moderniser les systèmes existants, le Ministère a reconnu que les améliorations ne progressent pas aussi rapidement que prévu. La capacité et les outils de gestion des services de SPC pourraient être insuffisants pour assurer l’excellence dans la prestation des services aux organisations partenaires. De plus, la capacité et les outils de gestion de projet de SPC pourraient également être insuffisants pour achever les projets à temps, dans le respect de la portée et du budget, compte tenu du fardeau opérationnel déjà pris en charge par le personnel de SPC. Prises dans leur ensemble, ces faiblesses pourraient avoir des répercussions négatives sur la capacité de SPC de répondre aux demandes futures des clients pour obtenir des services de soutien concernant les drones.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">With respect to the growth of drones and drone technology, there are also a number of negative aspects to note for SSC. Internal to SSC, the Department continues to face challenges related to the modernization of the Government of Canada’s IT infrastructure. The on-going replacement of aging IT systems could have an impact on SSC’s ability to deliver services.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> While SSC is currently working diligently to modernize legacy systems, the Department has acknowledged that improvements are not progressing as rapidly as desired. SSC’s capacity and tools for service management may not be sufficient to support excellence in the delivery of services to partner organizations. Additionally, SSC’s capacity and tools for project management may also be insufficient to complete projects on time, on scope, and on budget, considering the operational burden already borne by SSC’s workforce. Taken as a whole, these weaknesses could have a negative impact on SSC’s ability to deliver on future customer requests for drone support.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Gartner (2018) a indiqué que la croissance de l’adoption des drones continuera d’être davantage stimulée par l’établissement de règlements clairs plutôt que par les progrès technologiques. Avec l’annonce par Transports Canada en 2019 d’un nouveau règlement sur les drones volants, on s’attend à ce que le taux d’adoption des drones au Canada continue à augmenter.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> À l’extérieur de SPC, on pourrait s’attendre à ce que des organisations fédérales comme la GRC, le ministère de la Défense nationale, l’Agence des services frontaliers du Canada, Pêches et Océans Canada (y compris la Garde côtière canadienne) et d’autres, utilisent davantage les drones dans le cadre de leurs opérations comme les patrouilles, les enquêtes et les missions de recherche et de sauvetage. Parallèlement à l’utilisation accrue de la technologie des drones, il sera nécessaire de soutenir l’infrastructure de TI liée à ces technologies. Il est raisonnable de supposer que SPC sera appelé à soutenir l’utilisation des drones dans bon nombre de ces opérations.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Gartner (2018) has indicated that the growth of drone adoption will continue to be driven more by the establishment of clear regulations rather than by technology advancements. With Transport Canada’s 2019 announcement of new regulations for flying drones, it is expected that the rate of drone adoption within Canada will continue to increase.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> External to SSC, it could be expected that federal organizations such as the RCMP, the Department of National Defence (DND), Canada Boarder Services Agency (CBSA), Fisheries and Oceans (including the Canadian Coast Guard), and others, will increase their use of drones in operations such as patrols, investigations, and search and rescue efforts. Hand-in-hand with the increased use of drone technology will be the need to support the IT infrastructure related to these technologies. It is reasonable to assume that SSC will be called upon to support the use of drones in many of these operations.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">En outre, la gestion du trafic des drones peut également poser des problèmes. À l’heure actuelle, il n’existe pas de solution complète de gestion du trafic aérien (ou de système UTM) qui empêche les drones et autres aéronefs d’avoir des accidents.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Même dans les pays où la réglementation sur les drones est bien établie (par exemple, la Chine a été l’un des premiers pays à introduire une réglementation sur les drones, mais n’a pas encore mis en œuvre un système UTM), beaucoup mènent encore des essais et des recherches pour trouver les solutions UTM optimales. Au Canada, NAV Canada étudie actuellement des options pour la gestion du trafic des drones . Quelle que soit la solution retenue pour un système UTM au Canada, SPC devrait être prêt à assurer la fonctionnalité et l’interopérabilité de son infrastructure de TI.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Additionally there may also be challenges in terms of managing drone traffic. At this time, there does not exist a complete air traffic management solution (or a UTM system) that will keep drones and other aircraft from having accidents.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Even in countries with established drone regulations (e.g. China was one of the first countries to introduce drone regulations but has not yet implemented a UTM system), many are still testing and searching for optimal UTM solutions. In Canada, NAV Canada is currently exploring options to address the management of drone traffic. Whatever the end solution for a UTM is in Canada, SSC should be prepared to ensure functionality and interoperability of its IT infrastructure.</p>
  
   <h4>Considérations</h4>
+
   <h4>Considerations</h4>
  
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Dans l’avenir, SPC a un certain nombre d’éléments à considérer en ce qui a trait aux drones et à la technologie des drones.</p>
+
   <p class="expand mw-collapsible-content">Looking forward, SSC has a number of things to consider in terms of drones and drone technology.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Premièrement, SPC doit tenir compte des répercussions de l’utilisation accrue des drones et de la technologie des drones sur son rôle en tant que fournisseur de services de TI pour le GC.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Même si Transports Canada a établi de nouveaux règlements sur l’utilisation sécuritaire des drones, SPC devrait examiner de plus près les répercussions potentielles d’une demande accrue de soutien de la part de ses clients.</p><p class="inline"> SPC doit considérer les répercussions potentielles d’une demande accrue d’utilisation des drones sur sa capacité de fournir des services. SPC devrait il offrir du soutien à ses clients pour ce qui est de déterminer le type de drones à se procurer ou devrait il exploiter un service à la demande pour les drones, tel que « drone comme service (DaaS) »?</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Pour le moment, il peut être difficile de déterminer la meilleure approche et les quantités exactes, mais SPC peut raisonnablement prévoir une augmentation des demandes de soutien de la part des organisations partenaires. Cette situation pourrait également faire en sorte que SPC doive affecter de plus en plus de fonds et de ressources pour répondre à une demande accrue.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Firstly, SSC should consider how the increased use of drones and drone technology will impact its role as an IT service provider for the Government of Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> While Transport Canada has laid out new regulations for the safe use and enjoyment of drones, SSC should examine closer the potential impact of increased demand for support from its customers.</p><p class="inline"> SSC should consider how an increased demand in the use of drones might impact on its ability to deliver services. Should SSC support its customers in terms of the types of drones to procure or should SSC operate a drone-based on-demand service such as a Drones-as-a-Service (DaaS).</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> At this point in time it may be difficult to determine the best approach and the precise amounts but it is reasonable for SSC to plan for increased requests for support from partner organizations. This in turn could lead to an increased need for SSC to allocate funding and resources to meet an increased demand.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Deuxièmement, SPC doit chercher à établir une politique cohérente en matière d’acquisition et d’utilisation des drones. Une approche cohérente et potentiellement personnalisable permettrait aux clients d’acquérir et d’utiliser des drones tout en maintenant l’interopérabilité.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Ainsi, SPC pourrait soutenir l’infrastructure de TI des drones d’une manière plus rentable. Il pourrait s’avérer nécessaire d’assurer la coordination avec Services publics et Approvisionnement Canada en ce qui concerne la détermination des rôles et des responsabilités en matière d’acquisition et d’entretien des drones afin d’établir des paramètres clairs.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Secondly, SSC should pursue a coherent policy in terms of drone acquisition and use. A consistent approach, with space for customization, would enable customers to acquire and use drones while maintaining interoperability.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> This would allow SSC to support the IT infrastructure of drones in a more cost-effective fashion. Coordination with Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) in determining the roles and responsibilities of procuring and servicing drones may be required in order for clear parameters to be established.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Troisièmement, SPC devrait examiner le type de plates formes de gestion des drones qui devrait être utilisé dans l’ensemble du GC.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> On entend par plates formes de gestion des drones les capacités utilisées par les organisations pour gérer leurs flottes de drones.</p><p class="inline"> Des technologies seront nécessaires pour faciliter le fonctionnement des drones à l’aide de plates formes communes ou interopérables.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Toute organisation gouvernementale qui gère une flotte de drones relativement importante devrait utiliser une plate forme de gestion pour rendre ses opérations plus sûres et plus efficaces. De façon plus générale, SPC devrait également consulter les organismes de réglementation comme Transports Canada et NAV Canada au sujet des systèmes de gestion du trafic des drones. Les technologies sans fil utilisées pour surveiller, contrôler et gérer les drones dans nos espaces aériens devraient être interopérables en toute sécurité avec l’infrastructure du GC.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Thirdly, SSC may wish to consider what type of drone management platforms should be used across the Government of Canada.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Drone management platforms refer to capabilities by which organizations manage their drone fleets.</p><p class="inline"> Technologies will be required to facilitate drone operations using common or interoperable platforms.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> Any government organization that would maintain a comparatively large fleet of drones should use a management platform to make their operations safer and more efficient. More broadly, SSC should also be in consultation with regulatory organizations like Transport Canada and NAV Canada regarding drone traffic management systems. Wireless technologies used to track, control, and manage drones in our skies should be securely interoperable with GC infrastructure.</p>
  
   <p class="inline">Enfin, SPC doit déterminer si des mesures de sécurité supplémentaires ou nouvelles sont requises pour les drones qui sont connectés aux réseaux du GC ou qui interagissent avec ceux ci.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> SPC prend la sécurité informatique et cybernétique au sérieux et doit veiller à ce que les protocoles nécessaires pour sécuriser les drones gérés par le GC soient suffisants et suivis correctement.</p><p class="inline"> En outre, SPC devra peut être déterminer dans quelle mesure les clients ont besoin d’un soutien en matière de contre mesures de drones et comment offrir un tel soutien. Les contre mesures de drones sont des systèmes et des dispositifs conçus pour neutraliser les menaces des drones ou pour y riposter.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> SPC doit s’attendre à devoir collaborer avec les ministères et les organisations du GC responsables de la sécurité pour déterminer la meilleure façon de répondre à leurs besoins en matière de sécurité de l’infrastructure de la TI.</p>
+
   <p class="inline">Lastly, SSC should consider if additional or new security measures are required for drones that are connected to or interact with Government of Canada networks.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> SSC takes cyber and IT security seriously and should consider if the protocols needed to secure GC supported drones are sufficient and properly followed.</p><p class="inline"> Additionally, SSC may need to consider how and to what degree support is required by customers in terms of drone countermeasures. Drone countermeasures are systems and devices designed to neutralize or retaliate against threats from drones.</p><p class="expand inline mw-collapsible-content"> SSC should expect to work with Government of Canada security departments and agencies to determine how best to support their IT infrastructure security needs.</p>
  
   <h2>Cycle de Médiatisation</h2>
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   <h2>Hype Cycle</h2>
  
 
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         <p>Ce rapport Hype Cycle de Gartner (2018) présente les innovations en matière de robots et de drones dont bénéficieront les organisations qui ont deux ans ou plus d’expérience dans l’adoption des drones et des robots mobiles. Bon nombre de plates formes, technologies et composants (tels que les semi conducteurs, les capteurs, les moteurs et actionneurs, les réseaux, les logiciels et algorithmes et les matériaux) qui amélioreront les performances, les coûts et les capacités de ces systèmes, tireront parti du développement dans d’autres marchés. Cependant, il reste encore de nombreux défis à relever pour améliorer les drones, tels que l’intelligence artificielle, les semi conducteurs et la technologie des batteries. Comme de plus en plus de pays établissent des réglementations régissant l’exploitation des drones, Gartner prévoit que cela entraînera une augmentation de la demande de drones qui continuera à proliférer dans de nombreux cas d’utilisation sur les marchés. Bon nombre de ces technologies liées aux drones sont encore en phase d’innovation et n’atteindront pas un seuil plus évolué avant 5 à 10 ans (et dans certains cas plus de 10 ans). </p>
+
         <p>This Gartner Hype Cycle report (2018) presents innovations in robotics and drones that will benefit organizations with two or more years of experience in the adoption of drones and mobile robots. Many platforms, technologies and components (such as semiconductors, sensors, motors and actuators, networks, software and algorithms and materials) that will improve the performance, costs and capabilities of these systems will development in other markets. However, there are still many challenges to overcome to improve drones, such as artificial intelligence, semiconductors and battery technology. As more and more countries establish regulations governing the operation of drones, Gartner anticipates that this will lead to an increase in the demand for drones that will continue to proliferate in many cases of use in the markets. Many of these drone technologies are still in the innovation phase and will not reach a more advanced threshold before 5 to 10 years (and in some cases more than 10 years).</p>
 
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  <h2>References</h2>
 +
  <ol>
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    <li>Borak, M. (2018, January 3). <i>[https://technode.com/2018/01/03/worlds-top-drone-seller-dji-made-2-7-billion-2017/ World’s top drone seller DJI made $2.7 billion in 2017].</i> Retrieved from technode.</li>
 +
    <li>Canada Gazette. (2017, July 15). <i>[http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p1/2017/2017-07-15/html/reg2-eng.html Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Unmanned Aircraft Systems)]</i>. Retrieved from Gazette GC.</li>
 +
    <li>Canada Gazette. (2018, December 20). <i>[http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2019/2019-01-09/html/sor-dors11-eng.html Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems): SOR/2019-11]</i>. Retrieved from Gazette GC.</li>
 +
    <li>Corrigan, F. (2019, June 30). <i>[https://www.dronezon.com/learn-about-drones-quadcopters/what-is-drone-technology-or-how-does-drone-technology-work/ How Do Drones Work And What Is Drone Technology]</i>. Retrieved from DroneZon./</li>
 +
    <li>Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC. (2016). <i>[https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/technology-driving-innovation/drones/ Drones]</i>. Retrieved from Goldman Sachs.</li>
 +
    <li>Maxim, M., & Schiana, S. (2017, May 30). Forrester's Guide to Drone Security Risks. Retrieved from Forrester.</li>
 +
    <li>McNabb, M. (2017, July 13). <i>[https://dronelife.com/2017/07/13/business-insiders-latest-drone-industry-analysis/ Business Insider’s Latest Drone Industry Analysis]</i>. Retrieved from dronelife.</li>
 +
    <li>Präsentiert, S. (2019). <i>[https://www.dibbern.biz/drones-as-a-service-a-professional-it-service-provision/ Drones As A Service]. Retrieved from Dibbern Consulting.</li>
 +
    <li>Wang, B. (2018, July 18). <i>[https://www.gartner.com/en/documents/3883167/hype-cycle-for-drones-and-mobile-robots-2018 Hype Cycle for Drones and Mobile Robots, 2018]</i>. Retrieved from Gartner.</li>
 +
  </ol>
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</div>
  
<h2>Références</h2>
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<h2>References</h2>
 
<ol>
 
<ol>
    <li>Borak, M. (2018, janvier 3). <i>[https://technode.com/2018/01/03/worlds-top-drone-seller-dji-made-2-7-billion-2017/ World’s top drone seller DJI made $2.7 billion in 2017].</i> Récupéré de technode.</li>
+
  <li>Diedrich, H. (2016). <i>Ethereum: Blockchains, Digital Assets, Smart Contracts, Decentralized Autonomous Organizations.</i> Scotts Valley: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.</li>
    <li>Canada Gazette. (2017, juillet 15). <i>[http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p1/2017/2017-07-15/html/reg2-eng.html Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Unmanned Aircraft Systems)]</i>. Récupéré de Gazette GC.</li>
+
  <li>Furlonger, D., & Kandaswamy, R. (25 July 2018). <i>[https://www.gartner.com/document/3883991 Hype Cycle for Blockchain Technologies].</i> Retrieved on 23 May 2019</li>
    <li>Canada Gazette. (2018, décembre 20). <i>[http://www.gazette.gc.ca/rp-pr/p2/2019/2019-01-09/html/sor-dors11-eng.html Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems): SOR/2019-11]</i>. Récupéré de Gazette GC.</li>
+
  <li>Gilder, G. (2018). Life After Google: <i>The Fall of Big Data and the Rise of the Blockchain Economy.</i> New Jersey: Gateway Editions.</li>
    <li>Corrigan, F. (2019, juin 30). <i>[https://www.dronezon.com/learn-about-drones-quadcopters/what-is-drone-technology-or-how-does-drone-technology-work/ How Do Drones Work And What Is Drone Technology]</i>. Récupéré de DroneZon./</li>
+
  <li>Gupta, V. (28 February 2017). <i>[https://hbr.org/2017/02/a-brief-history-of-blockchain A Brief History of Blockchain].</i> Retrieved on 23 May 2019</li>
    <li>Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC. (2016). <i>[https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/technology-driving-innovation/drones/ Drones]</i>. Récupéré de Goldman Sachs.</li>
+
  <li>Orcutt, M. (19 February 2019). <i>[https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612974/once-hailed-as-unhackable-blockchains-are-now-getting-hacked/ Once hailed as unhackable, blockchains are now getting hacked].</i> Retrieved on 23 May 2019</li>
    <li>Maxim, M., & Schiana, S. (2017, mai 30). Forrester's Guide to Drone Security Risks. Récupéré de Forrester.</li>
+
  <li>Secretariat, T. B. (29 March 2019). <i>[https://www.canada.ca/en/government/system/digital-government/digital-operations-strategic-plan-2018-2022.html Digital Operations Strategic Plan: 2018-2022].</i> Retrieved on 23 May 2019</li>
    <li>McNabb, M. (2017, juillet 13). <i>[https://dronelife.com/2017/07/13/business-insiders-latest-drone-industry-analysis/ Business Insider’s Latest Drone Industry Analysis]</i>. Récupéré de dronelife.</li>
+
  <li>Vallée, J.-C. L. (April 2018). <i>[https://www.conferenceboard.ca/temp/7dc77c07-7e5a-4be6-ad6d-7d1070f9ac20/9591_Cautious%20Optimism_BR.pdf Adopting Blockchain to Improve Canadian Government Digital Services].</i> Retrieved on 23 May 2019</li>
    <li>Präsentiert, S. (2019). <i>[https://www.dibbern.biz/drones-as-a-service-a-professional-it-service-provision/ Drones As A Service]. Récupéré de Dibbern Consulting.</li>
+
</ol>
    <li>Wang, B. (2018, juillet 18). <i>[https://www.gartner.com/en/documents/3883167/hype-cycle-for-drones-and-mobile-robots-2018 Hype Cycle for Drones and Mobile Robots, 2018]</i>. Récupéré de Gartner.</li>
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Latest revision as of 12:56, 12 July 2019


Status Published
Initial release July 4, 2019
Latest version July 4, 2019
Official publication Drones.pdf
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Drone is the common name given to an aircraft piloted without a human on-board, but other names include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), unmanned aircraft systems (UASes) or uncrewed aerial vehicle (UAV). This technology is defined as a flying robot that can be controlled remotely by a ground-based operator with a system of communication between the two or that is able to fly completely autonomously. Drones feature several sensors and navigation systems such as a dual global navigation satellite system, collision avoidance systems, gyroscopic stabilization, etc. Drones are another example of a technology that originates from the military as they provide a safer alternative for humans. They have since taken over the consumer market with inexpensive models for recreational purposes and with expensive models for professional aerial cinematographers.

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Business Brief

While drones can be referred to by various names , Transport Canada uses the technical term Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). An RPA is defined as a navigable aircraft, other than a balloon, rocket, or kite that is operated by a pilot who is not on board.

An RPA is considered a component of a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS). An RPAS refers to a set of configurable elements consisting of a remotely piloted aircraft, its control station, the command and control links, and any other system elements required during flight operation.

Essentially, a drone can be considered a flying computer that can be remotely controlled or fly autonomously through the use of software working in conjunction with various sensors. Transport Canada uses the term ‘drone’ interchangeably with RPAS. Transport Canada classifies drones by weight into three basic groups, namely:

  • Drones under 250 grams,
  • Drones from 250 grams up to and including 25 kilograms, and
  • Drones over 25 kilograms.

Transport Canada advises that drones weighing less than 250 grams (approx. ½ lbs.), also referred to as micro drones, must be “flown responsibly”.

Micro drones should not be flown near aircraft or airports. People and property must never be placed in danger and the operator/pilot should maintain visual-line-of-sight with the drone when in flight.

A pilot certificate is not required to operate a micro drone.

Operators/pilots must obtain a drone pilot certificate for drones that weigh between 250 grams and 25 kg (approx. 55 lbs.). There are two types of pilot certificates available from Transport Canada and they are based on categories of operation. For example, a pilot conducting basic operations must always fly more than 30 m away from bystanders and only in uncontrolled airspace – requiring a basic operations certificate. A pilot conducting advanced operations may fly less than 30 m from and over bystanders and in controlled airspace – requiring an advanced operations certificate.

Additionally, drones that weigh over 25 kilograms require special permission (i.e. a special flight operations certificate) from Transport Canada before they are flown.

Drones can come in a wide variety of sizes and have just as many capabilities. For example, the United States Air Force uses large drones the size of normal manned aircraft

(i.e. the Predator and Reaper drones used for surveillance and/or as a munitions platforms). The United States Army uses micro drones the size of a role of quarters (i.e. the Black Hornet Nano drone contains a tiny camera which provides troops on the ground with local aerial situational awareness). Drones can have fixed wings and require short runways to take-off (i.e. various types of radio-controlled model aircraft) or drones can have rotors like a helicopter and can take-off vertically, fly, hover, and land vertically (e.g. quadcopters). These are the types of drones that are commonly available to the public and are primarily used for recreational and commercial purposes.

Technology Brief

Drones, and the technology related to drones, are constantly evolving as new innovation and investment lead to advancements. A typical drone is made of light composite materials to reduce weight and increase maneuverability.

Since drones do not have a need to accommodate human operators/pilots, the body of a drone typically contains the technology. Drone technology refers to everything from the aerodynamics of the drone, materials in the manufacture of the physical drone, to the circuit boards, chipset, software, and communications system.

Drones can be equipped with additional technology such as various types of cameras, Global Positioning System (GPS), lasers, various types of sensors, and even weapons. Drones can also operate with various degrees of autonomy, either under remote control by a human operator/pilot or autonomously by on-board computers.

The remote Ground Control Systems (GSC) that control drones are typically referred to as a ground cockpits.

Drones can contain a multitude of technology, including:

  • Satellite Positioning – the use of Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS to aid in drone navigation.
  • Obstacle Detection and Collision Avoidance – vision systems use obstacle detection sensors (e.g. ultrasonic, infrared, etc.) to scan surroundings in order to avoid objects.
  • Gyro Stabilization, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Flight Controller – these technologies are components that work together in order to give drones their smooth flight capabilities.
  • Drone Motor Direction And Propeller Design – these components enable drones to move through the air and to fly in any direction or hover.
  • Internal Compass & Failsafe Function – enables drones to return to a safe location in case of a loss of signal between the drone and the ground control system.
  • LED Flight Indicators – allows the operator/pilot to know the orientation of the drone in flight.
  • Smartphone App featuring Ground Control System Function – many drones can be flown from a smartphone app connected to the drone via Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, or over cellular networks like 4G (LTE) or 5G.
  • Cameras and Live Video Transmission – a video camera mounted on a drone can have the ability to broadcast live video to the operator/pilot on the ground.
  • Gimbals & Tilt Control – allows for any vibration from the drone to not reach the camera and to create unique video angles while the drone is in flight.
  • Drones with Sensors – can be used to create 3D models of buildings, landscapes, etc., to collect and provide precision data to users.
  • Drone Security – in some ways drones are like flying computers and as such are susceptible to hacking and other cyber-attacks or interference.

Industry Use

According to a 2016 report by Goldman Sachs Research, between 2016 and 2020, the market opportunity for drones is forecast to grow to $100 billion.

While the military share of this market will remain strong, further growth will be driven by further demand in the commercial and government sectors, specifically in construction, agriculture, insurance claims, oil and gas (aerial inspections), police, fire, search and rescue, journalism, boarder protection, and cinematography.

Technology Trends - Drones Market Value.png

Source: “Drones: Reporting for work”. Goldman Sachs Research, 2016.

The rapid growth of the drone industry has often outpaced the development of government regulations and systems to govern their use. This uncertainty weighs on innovation and commercial adoption, but anticipated regulatory clarity should lead to increased demand. For example, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is leading a multibillion-dollar effort to develop a United States airspace management system (often referred to as an Unmanned Traffic Management (UTM) system) capable of safely coordinating manned and unmanned flights, while the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is expected to further ease restrictions that are keeping commercial drones from reaching their full potential.

A 2017 market analysis report on drones by Business Insider (BI) Intelligence identified that the market for commercial and consumer drones will grow at a compound annual growth rate of 19% between 2015 and 2020, compared with 5% growth for the military market. BI Intelligence expects sales of drones to surpass $12 billion in 2021. That is up by a compound annual growth rate of 7.6% from $8.5 billion in 2016. BI Intelligence predicts future growth across the consumer, commercial, and government markets. The report concludes that the commercial market will be the segment that drives the industry.

The largest producer of drones for the consumer market is the Chinese-based company DJI Technologies Co. In 2017, DJI accounted for over 70% of the consumer drone market with revenues of approximately $2.7 billion.

As for military drones, Israel and the United States make up more than 80% of all military drone exports worldwide, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Most military drones are for surveillance, but several countries already have military drones capable of carrying out combat missions – a number that is expected to rise in the coming years.

Research from Forrester (2017) also predicts that drone usage and deployment will be pervasive across all industries. Drone regulations will continue to evolve and will continue to introduce new opportunities for further applications.

Within the Canadian marketplace, Unmanned Systems Canada (USC) –a not-for-profit organization, acts as the national industry association representing entrepreneurs, businesses, students, academia, industry, and government organizations working in the aerial, ground, and marine remotely-piloted and unmanned vehicle systems sector.

USC has the objective to strive for a strong, single voice that advocates for safety, high professional standards, industry collaboration and a stable, responsive regulatory framework. Transport Canada engaged with USC during the development of new regulations for drones, which are discussed in the following section.

Canadian Government Use

Drones offer almost endless use in their application to public service operations. From performing regular safety inspections on infrastructure such as roads, bridges, and power lines, to carrying out potentially life-saving public safety missions, the right drone can make all the difference in optimizing operations across a huge scope of different government uses.

Transport Canada estimates that the number of drones flown in Canada is approximately 193,500. By comparison, it is estimated that there are 37,000 aircraft in traditional aviation, including commercial passenger and cargo aircraft and general aviation aircraft in Canada.

The growth in drone usage has brought new entrants to aviation. Transport Canada no longer deals solely with the typical industries such as aerospace manufacturers, airlines, and airplane pilots. New entrants include commercial drone operators/pilots, manufacturers, training providers, law enforcement, and academia. Unlike persons who are traditionally involved in aviation, such as commercial airline pilots and military pilots, new entrants have varying levels of aviation safety awareness, may never have flown traditional aircraft before, and may be unfamiliar with safety-related aviation rules and regulations.

Flying a drone has quickly become a pastime. As of 2018, the recreational drone community in Canada is estimated at 140,800 operators and is projected to increase to 225,500 operators by 2025. That being said, the minimalistic requirements under the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) for recreational operators/pilots has resulted in a number of incidents (which are often associated with a lack of user knowledge) and a growing risk to aviation safety as well as to people on the ground. Since 2014, the number of drone-related incidents reported to Transport Canada has risen over 200%. Incidents have included risks to traditional aircraft while they are on take-off or landing near airports, high altitude flights, and risk of injury to people on the ground caused by events such as a ‘fly-away’, which generally means that a pilot cannot maintain control of the drone or that it ceases to follow pre-programmed procedures.

The growing drone industry has significant economic potential for Canada, however, until recent years there has been no specific set of regulations in place to require the safe operation of drones in Canada.

Existing CARs did not provide a regulatory framework that promotes the economic potential of drones nor did it contain modern, risk- and performance-based regulations that can uphold aviation safety. To date, Transport Canada has been overseeing commercial drone operations on a case-by-case basis using certain CARs provisions that were not designed specifically for drones in order to mitigate aviation safety risks. This approach has been complex, inefficient, and in some cases overly restrictive.

Transport Canada recognized that in the absence of any regulatory change, risks to aviation and public safety would continue to rise in step with the growth in popularity of drones.

Canadian civil aviation is the responsibility of the Minister of Transport under the Aeronautics Act (the Act). Under the Act, the Minister is responsible for the development of regulations governing aeronautics and the supervision of all matters connected with aeronautics. In 2017, the Minister of Transport made an Interim Order (IO) under the Act to address the growing number of incidents related to drones. The objective of the IO was to improve aviation safety, to protect the public and to ensure the safe operation of aircraft. It was a temporary measure (renewed in June 2018) until new regulations could be put in place to require the safe operation of drones.

In an effort to address on-going issues, in January 2019, Transport Canada published new regulations for flying drones in Canada.

These regulations will come into effect on June 1, 2019, will amend existing CARs and are intended to provide improved regulatory predictability for businesses and to reduce risks related to aviation safety. These regulations will move away from the case-by-case treatment of non-recreational drone operations by eliminating a number of Special Flight Operations Certificates (SFOC) requirements for drone operations.

This will create a predictable and flexible regulatory environment conducive to long-term planning while reducing costly administrative burdens on businesses. The amendments are also intended to reduce risks to public safety through pilot certification and will also introduce drone safety-based manufacturing requirements intended for certain operations.

These new regulations are not intended to impede innovations in the use of drone technology, such as Amazon’s drone parcel delivery to residential areas. Transport Canada has indicated that these regulations do not touch upon privacy related issues since Canada already has in place laws that protect privacy.

Enforcing these new regulations will be carried out by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), as well as other provincial and local police forces.

Implications for Government Agencies

Shared Services Canada (SSC)

Value Proposition

Broadly speaking there are a number of value propositions in terms of drones and drone technology that federal organizations should be aware of, namely:

  • Drones could offer improved monitoring:
    • As video monitoring and analytics capabilities are growing, drones and drone technology has the potential to upend traditional modes of video surveillance. This could reduce installation costs and maintenance of traditional fixed systems. SSC should look to supporting drone technology as a means to improve/augment legacy systems.
    • Drones could also become a new vehicle for data collection. Analysis of this new data gathered by drones could provide new perspectives and insights to government departments. SSC should consider how best to handle an increased volume of data.
  • Drones could automate and augment physical security:
    • The mobile nature of drones has its advantages over fixed physical security options. SSC should consider customer requests to upgrade existing systems that afford greater flexibility and reduced cost options.

With respect to the growth of drones and drone technology, there are a number of positive aspects to note for SSC. As the information technology (IT) infrastructure service provider for the Government of Canada, SSC is ideally positioned to capitalize on existing strengths and to seize opportunities.

Internal to SSC, the Department has an existing depth and breadth of IT expertise. SSC has over 5,800 employees, the majority of which are computer systems experts. These experts have specialized education, experience and training in various aspects of information technology and computer systems.

These experts work to provide a modern, reliable, and secure information technology infrastructure for the Government of Canada. SSC maintains new, large, state-of-the art enterprise data centres that serve the entire government. These data centers enable SSC to protect the IT infrastructure that is the IT backbone of the safety, security, and well being of Canadians, 24 hours a day, 356 days a year. Additionally, SSC also offers public cloud computing services for its customers. Cloud computing improves services to Canadians by increasing the responsiveness, flexibility, and value for money of the applications used to deliver programs and services.

All combined, these positive elements position SSC nicely to face the challenges of delivering on future customer requests for drone support.

External to SSC, the demand for drones from SSC’s customers is still in its infancy.

Requests from SSC’s customers for support of drones and drone technology has been minimal. Therefore, there is still time for SSC to begin to ramp-up for an increased demand for support from its customers. Additionally the nature of drone technology has the potential to generate efficiencies and reduce costs.

Drones can be more effective for the GC to use in environments where it is difficult and/or dangerous for humans to operate. For example, there could be potential efficiencies to use drones with cameras in place of helicopters with human observers. While there could be other net efficiencies for the Government of Canada, it is unclear if this could mean increased costs to SSC in terms of IT service support.

Challenges

Broadly speaking, there are a number of high-impact challenges in terms of drones and drone technology that federal organizations should be aware of, namely:

  • Drones could be compromised:
    • Drones are vulnerable to hackers and significantly increase the attack surface that organizations must defend. SSC should view drones as another integrated hardware and software endpoint that requires essential security controls, access management, monitoring, patching, and updating.
  • Drones could crash and/or impact critical operations:
    • With the increased use of drones, so too is there an increase in the number of drone crashes. SSC and its customers should be aware of the potential liabilities that can result from a drone incident and the potential impact on critical operations.
  • Drones could create privacy concerns:
    • There are numerous issues surrounding aerial surveillance and privacy rights. SSC and its customers should be aware of the legal and regulatory landscape and act in accordance with it.

With respect to the growth of drones and drone technology, there are also a number of negative aspects to note for SSC. Internal to SSC, the Department continues to face challenges related to the modernization of the Government of Canada’s IT infrastructure. The on-going replacement of aging IT systems could have an impact on SSC’s ability to deliver services.

While SSC is currently working diligently to modernize legacy systems, the Department has acknowledged that improvements are not progressing as rapidly as desired. SSC’s capacity and tools for service management may not be sufficient to support excellence in the delivery of services to partner organizations. Additionally, SSC’s capacity and tools for project management may also be insufficient to complete projects on time, on scope, and on budget, considering the operational burden already borne by SSC’s workforce. Taken as a whole, these weaknesses could have a negative impact on SSC’s ability to deliver on future customer requests for drone support.

Gartner (2018) has indicated that the growth of drone adoption will continue to be driven more by the establishment of clear regulations rather than by technology advancements. With Transport Canada’s 2019 announcement of new regulations for flying drones, it is expected that the rate of drone adoption within Canada will continue to increase.

External to SSC, it could be expected that federal organizations such as the RCMP, the Department of National Defence (DND), Canada Boarder Services Agency (CBSA), Fisheries and Oceans (including the Canadian Coast Guard), and others, will increase their use of drones in operations such as patrols, investigations, and search and rescue efforts. Hand-in-hand with the increased use of drone technology will be the need to support the IT infrastructure related to these technologies. It is reasonable to assume that SSC will be called upon to support the use of drones in many of these operations.

Additionally there may also be challenges in terms of managing drone traffic. At this time, there does not exist a complete air traffic management solution (or a UTM system) that will keep drones and other aircraft from having accidents.

Even in countries with established drone regulations (e.g. China was one of the first countries to introduce drone regulations but has not yet implemented a UTM system), many are still testing and searching for optimal UTM solutions. In Canada, NAV Canada is currently exploring options to address the management of drone traffic. Whatever the end solution for a UTM is in Canada, SSC should be prepared to ensure functionality and interoperability of its IT infrastructure.

Considerations

Looking forward, SSC has a number of things to consider in terms of drones and drone technology.

Firstly, SSC should consider how the increased use of drones and drone technology will impact its role as an IT service provider for the Government of Canada.

While Transport Canada has laid out new regulations for the safe use and enjoyment of drones, SSC should examine closer the potential impact of increased demand for support from its customers.

SSC should consider how an increased demand in the use of drones might impact on its ability to deliver services. Should SSC support its customers in terms of the types of drones to procure or should SSC operate a drone-based on-demand service such as a Drones-as-a-Service (DaaS).

At this point in time it may be difficult to determine the best approach and the precise amounts but it is reasonable for SSC to plan for increased requests for support from partner organizations. This in turn could lead to an increased need for SSC to allocate funding and resources to meet an increased demand.

Secondly, SSC should pursue a coherent policy in terms of drone acquisition and use. A consistent approach, with space for customization, would enable customers to acquire and use drones while maintaining interoperability.

This would allow SSC to support the IT infrastructure of drones in a more cost-effective fashion. Coordination with Public Services and Procurement Canada (PSPC) in determining the roles and responsibilities of procuring and servicing drones may be required in order for clear parameters to be established.

Thirdly, SSC may wish to consider what type of drone management platforms should be used across the Government of Canada.

Drone management platforms refer to capabilities by which organizations manage their drone fleets.

Technologies will be required to facilitate drone operations using common or interoperable platforms.

Any government organization that would maintain a comparatively large fleet of drones should use a management platform to make their operations safer and more efficient. More broadly, SSC should also be in consultation with regulatory organizations like Transport Canada and NAV Canada regarding drone traffic management systems. Wireless technologies used to track, control, and manage drones in our skies should be securely interoperable with GC infrastructure.

Lastly, SSC should consider if additional or new security measures are required for drones that are connected to or interact with Government of Canada networks.

SSC takes cyber and IT security seriously and should consider if the protocols needed to secure GC supported drones are sufficient and properly followed.

Additionally, SSC may need to consider how and to what degree support is required by customers in terms of drone countermeasures. Drone countermeasures are systems and devices designed to neutralize or retaliate against threats from drones.

SSC should expect to work with Government of Canada security departments and agencies to determine how best to support their IT infrastructure security needs.

Hype Cycle

EN Technology Trends - Drones Hype Cycle.png

This Gartner Hype Cycle report (2018) presents innovations in robotics and drones that will benefit organizations with two or more years of experience in the adoption of drones and mobile robots. Many platforms, technologies and components (such as semiconductors, sensors, motors and actuators, networks, software and algorithms and materials) that will improve the performance, costs and capabilities of these systems will development in other markets. However, there are still many challenges to overcome to improve drones, such as artificial intelligence, semiconductors and battery technology. As more and more countries establish regulations governing the operation of drones, Gartner anticipates that this will lead to an increase in the demand for drones that will continue to proliferate in many cases of use in the markets. Many of these drone technologies are still in the innovation phase and will not reach a more advanced threshold before 5 to 10 years (and in some cases more than 10 years).

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Figure 1. Hype Cycle Report for UAVs and Mobile Robots, 2018 Figure 1. Rapport Hype Cycle pour les drones et les robots mobiles, 2018
expectations Attentes
Innovation Trigger Déclencheur d’innovation
Peak exaggerated expectations Pic des attentes exagérées
Gap of disillusionment Gouffre de désillusionnement
Slope of enlightenment Pente de l’illumination
Productivity tray Plateau de productivité
Time Temps
Sharing Partage
Airborne communications to deep waters Communications aériennes jusqu’en eaux profondes
Biotechnology - Culture or artificial fabrics Biotechnologie – Tissus de culture ou artificiel
Knowledge of robotics Connaissances de la robotique
UAV Traffic Management Systems Systèmes de gestion du trafic des drones
Lithium air batteries Batteries au lithium air
Supercapacitor microphone batteries Batteries de micro supercondensateur
Air aluminum batteries Batteries à l’aluminium air
Lithium ion batteries with semiconductors Batteries au lithium ion à semi conducteurs
Authentication of the Internet of Things Authentification de l’Internet des objets
Drone management platforms Plates formes de gestion des drones
Swarm robotics Robotique en essaim
Emotional artificial intelligence Intelligence artificielle émotionnelle
Interactive robotic interface Interface interactive robotique
Intermediate robotic software (eg, hardware robotic operating system) Logiciel intermédiaire robotique (p. ex., système d’exploitation robotique matériel)
Multi purpose room Chambre multi objectifs
Copper foam batteries Batteries en mousse de cuivre
Personal robot Robot personnel
5G 5G
3D georeferencing Géorepérage en 3D
Counter measures of drones Contre mesures de drones
Open Space Optical Communication Communication optique à espace ouvert
Smart robots Robots intelligents
Self-guided robots Robots autoguidés
Machine learning Apprentissage machine
3D detection cameras Caméras de détection 3D
Electro-mechanical MEMS technology scanning lidar with semiconductors Lidar à balayage de technologie MEMS (microsystème électromécanique) à semi conducteurs
Computer Vision Vision par ordinateur
Commercial unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) Véhicules aériens sans pilote commerciaux (drones)
Communication platforms lighter than air Plates formes de communication plus légères que l’air
Augmented reality Réalité augmentée
Sensor interconnection Interconnexion des capteurs
Micropiles with fuel Micropiles à combustible
As of July 2018 En date de juillet 2018
The plateau will be reached: Le plateau sera atteint :
In less than 2 years Dans moins de 2 ans
In 2 to 5 years Dans 2 à 5 ans
In 5 to 10 years Dans 5 à 10 ans
In more than 10 years Dans plus de 10 ans
Out of date before the board Désuet avant le plateau
Source: Gartner (July 2018) Source : Gartner (juillet 2018)

References

  1. Borak, M. (2018, January 3). World’s top drone seller DJI made $2.7 billion in 2017. Retrieved from technode.
  2. Canada Gazette. (2017, July 15). Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Unmanned Aircraft Systems). Retrieved from Gazette GC.
  3. Canada Gazette. (2018, December 20). Regulations Amending the Canadian Aviation Regulations (Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems): SOR/2019-11. Retrieved from Gazette GC.
  4. Corrigan, F. (2019, June 30). How Do Drones Work And What Is Drone Technology. Retrieved from DroneZon./
  5. Goldman Sachs & Co. LLC. (2016). Drones. Retrieved from Goldman Sachs.
  6. Maxim, M., & Schiana, S. (2017, May 30). Forrester's Guide to Drone Security Risks. Retrieved from Forrester.
  7. McNabb, M. (2017, July 13). Business Insider’s Latest Drone Industry Analysis. Retrieved from dronelife.
  8. Präsentiert, S. (2019). Drones As A Service. Retrieved from Dibbern Consulting.
  9. Wang, B. (2018, July 18). Hype Cycle for Drones and Mobile Robots, 2018. Retrieved from Gartner.