|Initial release||May 23, 2019|
|Latest version||May 23, 2019|
5G Networksalso known as 5G NR (“new radio”), stands for 5th-Generation cellular wireless technology. In the mobile universe, a generation (a ‘G’) usually indicates a compatibility break – meaning that users will need new equipment. Although wireless generations have technically been defined by their data transmission speeds, each has also been marked by a break in encoding methods, or “air interfaces,” that make it incompatible with the previous generation.
1G – Analog Voice: introduced in the late 1970s, the first cellphones provided voice-only calls. Years later, some 1G cellphones occasionally provided wireless data service to a laptop by connecting them to the laptop's dial-up modem, but hookups were precarious, and when it worked, the data transfer rate was minuscule.
2G – Digital Networks: introduction of a new digital technology for wireless transmission also known as Global System for Mobile communication (GSM). GSM technology became the base standard for further development in wireless standards. This standard was capable of supporting a data rate from 14.4kbps up to 64kbps (maximum), which is sufficient for SMS and email services. Data networks (GPRS, EDGE, IS-95B) were added and commonly called 2.5G and 2.75G technologies.
3G – High speed IP Data Networks: the third generation, features faster access to the Internet with downstream speeds up to 1 Mbps and more, depending on the 3G version. Third generation mobile communication started with the introduction of UMTS – Universal Mobile Terrestrial / Telecommunication Systems. After the introduction of 3G mobile communication systems, smart phones became popular across the globe. Specific applications were developed for smartphones, which handle multimedia chat, email, video calling, games, social media and healthcare. In order to enhance data rate in existing 3G networks, another two technology improvements were introduced to the network. HSDPA – High Speed Downlink Packet access and HSUPA – High Speed Uplink Packet Access, developed and deployed to the 3G networks, known as 3.5G. The next 3G development, known as the 3.75 system, is an improved version of 3G networking with HSPA+ – High Speed Packet Access Plus. Later, this system would evolve into the more powerful 3.9G system known as LTE (Long Term Evolution).
4G – Growth of Mobile Broadband: 4G systems are enhanced versions of 3G networks developed by IEEE, offerings higher data rate and capable to of handle handling more advanced multimedia services. LTE and LTE advanced wireless technology are used in 4th generation systems. Furthermore, it has compatibility with previous versions thus easier deployment and upgrade of LTE and LTE advanced networks are possible. It is basically the extension in the 3G technology with more bandwidth and services. One of the main ways in which 4G differed technologically from 3G was in its elimination of circuit switching, instead employing an all-IP network. Thus, 4G ushered in a treatment of voice calls just like any other type of streaming audio media, utilizing packet switching over internet, LAN or WAN networks via VoIP.
5G – Unlicensed Spectrum: a 5G network has three main advantages over its predecessor:
- It is set to offer between 10 and 20Gbps data download speed;
- It offers low latency, of less than a millisecond, which is crucial for applications that need to be updated in real-time; and
- Because the technology makes use of millimeter radio waves (mmWave) for transmission, it can provide higher bandwidth over current LTE networks, as well as much higher data rates.
In practical terms, this means that 5G networks will be able to provide access to cloud storage, the ability to run enterprise applications, and the power to run more complex tasks virtually. A 5G network also offers the possibility of 100x more device connections than 4G LTE. It may also offer a 90% reduction in energy consumption compared to 4G, while providing internet speeds currently only capable of being achieved through a direct network connection via fiber optic cable. 5G is also poised to transform the world of IoT devices. The use of mmWave and 5G core network not only allow for faster data transmission but also greater connection reliability. This means greater connectivity for new kinds of mobile applications, factory automation, autonomous vehicles and so forth. Essentially any IoT application currently using Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) will see incremental improvements. Many cellular vendors are set to release smartphones and other devices capable of connecting to 5G networks by the end of 2019. Currently, organizations such as AT&T have released 5G Evolution, which is a step up from 4G LTE but does not provide the full range of capabilities that 5G will.
Much like current cellular networks, 5G divides a territory into small sectors in which devices connect to cell sites. These cell sites are then able to transmit encrypted data through the use of radio waves. Where 5G differs from its predecessor is in its ability to transmit these radio waves at much higher frequencies – which translates into faster data speeds, even faster than current fibre network speeds, which are 1Gbps. This minimal disruption has already seen real world application when Sprint released a similar feature with its LAA technology. In the millimeter wave (mmWave) spectrum, these frequencies are between 30 and 300 GHz.
There are two sets of frequencies being approved by the United States’ Federal Communications Commission (FCC). “Low-band 5G” and “Mid-band 5G” use frequencies from 600 MHz to 6 GHz, especially 3.5-4.2 GHz. Mid-Band waves will likely not affect existing wireless support hardware very much. Although there will be a need for boosters to avoid a lot of signal attenuation, mmWave will completely disrupt wireless technologies – requiring a whole new system of antennas, cabling, and amplifiers.
5G networks will be used with much smaller cell sites. Higher frequency radio waves are only capable of travelling short distances as compared to the lower frequency 4G LTE waves. Since the 5G signal can only be transmitted about the distance of a city block and cannot permeate buildings, there will be less need for large network towers and more need for small cell towers approximately every city block as well as within buildings. This also means that the speed on the individual networks will be greater than before.
An article written by professors from the University of Waterloo, Carleton and Ozyegin Universities explains that 5G networks could completely transform the current cellular architecture. They explain that for 5G to function with such a high demand for network bandwidth from IoT devices, the traditional cellular architecture may be divided into a two-tier architecture: 1) a macrocell layer, for base station-to-device communication, and 2) a device layer, for device-to-device (D2D) communication.
. However, this poses risks for security. D2D communication requires more complex network security than what is currently available. Communication is possible through the use of device relaying; connected devices use one another to retransmit data, creating an ad hoc mesh network. In this way, the devices can communicate with one another in a licensed cellular bandwidth without the use of a base station (BS). This capability is a dramatic shift from conventional cellular architecture where cell phones connect to a cell tower.
Previously, D2D communication has only been used minimally. Recently, demand for this capability has grown as more context-aware applications come to market. These applications generally require both location services and the ability to communicate with other devices. Providing this capability through D2D would offer cost savings since not all devices on the network would need to be connected through the BS. D2D could also play a role in mobile cloud computing and enable more effective sharing of resources. If a device is at the edge of a cell site or in a crowded area, D2D could eliminate a significant resource burden on the BS.
Several telecom vendors in the U.S. have begun developing and testing 5G networks. Telecom providers like Verizon, AT&T and Sprint have all made strides in this field, with individual research projects underway to test the networks. Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, and T-Mobile have all begun to deploy 5G in various markets and will continue to do so throughout 2019. Verizon has fixed and mobile 5G in a few areas. AT&T has mobile 5G for select businesses in select cities, as Sprint is deploying 5G to select areas. T-Mobile will launch commercial 5G in the second half of 2019 and is expecting to have nationwide coverage in 2020.
Sprint and T-Mobile have invested in lower-frequency 5G, which provides slower speeds in exchange for more range. This will allow them to provide 5G to less-dense areas more economically. Sprint has invested in mid-band, 2.5 GHz 5G, while T-Mobile is planning to use “low-band” 600 MHz 4G in addition to higher-frequency 5G in denser areas. In comparison, Verizon and AT&T will mostly be using much higher-frequency bands, such as the 28-GHz range.
In Canada, widespread availability of 5G won’t be until sometime in 2020. Although 5G has a potential of reaching speeds of 20Gbps, it will likely be around 6Gbps when it is first deployed. As with similar technologies, it will take up to 10 years for this new technology to reach full maturity.
One of the uses of 5G is to help manage solar, wind, and other renewable energy sources by balancing out power consumption. Since 5G will enable the collection of data, this information can be collected and analyzed to determine power consumption peaks and valleys. This information can then be used to plan a more consistent and dependable power grid.
The fast speed of 5G networks and its inherent low latency will also enable remote surgery. This gives people in smaller communities’ access to surgeons and specialists that are normally only available in larger cities. The first successful remote surgery has already been completed in China. A 5G network adds the missing piece to the remote surgery puzzle. A remote surgery needs a patient, surgeon, robot, and a super-fast, stable internet connection.
What if self-driving cars could signal their intentions or broadcast their route to other self-driving cars? 5G could enable this to happen and it would help make the roads safer. It could also be possible for the rest of us to broadcast to nearby drivers where we are going. This could be done when we are using our phones to give us directions to our destination. The phone could also broadcast this info via 5G to nearby phones and self-driving cars.
Canadian Government Use
5G (or 5th Generation) mobile networks are not yet available in Canada or most of the world for that matter. Despite this, the Government of Canada (GC) has been preparing for its arrival. Canada is on par in preparation for 5G compared to other developed countries.
Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada (ISED) & the Management of Mobile Spectrum
The demand for digital applications and content continues to rise, both in Canada and around the world, which is the main driving force for the ushering in of 5G technology. Smartphones and other cellular devices, along with tablets, personal computing devices (i.e. Internet of Things, or IoT) and machine-to-machine connectivity, are increasingly pivotal in the daily lives of Canadians and Canadian business. As use of such devices grows, the compound growth rate of mobile data traffic has been calculated at 54% annually. As such, the creation of new or conversion of existing spectrum (or radio frequencies upon which mobile data travels) by national regulators is crucial in order to meet demand to prevent any negative economic consequences.
All global radio spectrum is allocated by The International Telecommunication Union (ITU). In Canada, cell phones and radio frequencies are regulated by Innovation, Science, and Economic Development (ISED), which forms part of the ITU. This department also oversees licensing and placement of cell phone towers, conducts environmental impact and land use assessments regarding the installation of cell phone towers or other cell phone infrastructure, and ensures that this equipment meets all regulatory requirements. It is also responsible for the provision and licensing of spectrum to wireless carriers in Canada. In 2015, after consultations with telecommunications carriers and television broadcasters, it was decided that Canada will repurpose the 600 MHz portion of the TV spectrum band for mobile use. The auctioning of this spectrum to mobile carriers was completed in April 2019 and demonstrates the Government of Canada’s (GC) awareness of the constantly increasing importance of mobile technology and the need for greater frequency bands.
However, with 5G looming on the 2023 horizon, the year that most carriers in North American intend to have 5G launched on a large scale, even more spectrum will be required:
“New spectrum is critical for the success of fifth-generation (5G) terrestrial mobile service. Globally, there are significant on-going activities to identify suitable spectrum, including bands that can be used in as many countries as possible to enable global roaming and economies of scale. Various efforts around the world are underway to find harmonization around [the] spectrum to be used for 5G. The 5G services are expected to cover a wide range of applications.” 5G Americas
In June 2017, ISED launched consultations regarding the future release of additional spectrum, beyond the current used 648 MHz. ISED wanted to consider the quantities most likely required, as well as the need for possible policy and regulatory considerations, as new business models and network applications emerge. Various stakeholders took part in the consultations and showed support for the GC’s proposal for the release of 28GHz, 37 to 40GHz and 64 to 71GHz frequency bands. The Minister of ISED, the Honourable Navdeep Bains, has said that more conclusive decisions will not take place before the World Radiocommunication Conference in the Fall of 2019 and that consultations around such issues generally take two years. However, some major stakeholders would like to see the speed of this process increased. A representative from Telus has said, “Immediate and decisive regulatory action is required to allow Canada to reap early mover advantages in the new global digital economy.”
Public Safety & Concerns Regarding Espionage
As of May 2019, the GC is conducting a cybersecurity review of 5G technology and potential equipment suppliers. Currently, the main suppliers globally include Nokia, Ericsson, Samsung, Qualcomm, and Huawei, with the greatest concerns involving the latter company. In 2018, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States all banned the use of Huawei telecom equipment in its 5G networks after concerns that the company had ties to the Chinese government, which could potentially use Huawei to help it perform espionage or to attack vital public infrastructure by the deployment of malicious code. Huawei has vehemently denied these allegations to date. The United Kingdom has ordered a partial ban of Huawei in the core of its 5G network. Other European countries have so far refrained from doing so.
While it is normally the responsibility of Canadian carriers, like Bell, Rogers, and Telus, to ensure the security of their networks, the GC has an obligation towards public safety, of which cybersecurity is a part. As of May 1, 2019, according to Public Safety Minister Ralph Goodale, the minister responsible for national security and Canada’s National Cyber Security Strategy, the security review over 5G including Huawei’s potential role is ongoing and a final decision is expected by Fall 2019. Regardless of this decision, ongoing efforts will be needed by both carriers as well as the GC in terms of network security, similar to how it is with current 4G LTE.
Other Investments & Initiatives
On March 19, 2018 the GC announced its investment in the 5G test corridor between Quebec and Ontario. The investment in ENCQOR represents a step in the adoption of the next generation of wireless technology. The GC is partnering with several private industry partners and demonstrates an important example of collaboration among all stakeholders. 5G will demand a huge infrastructure overhaul that must be accounted for.
CWTA has launched the 5G Canada Council to promote supportive collaboration as Canada establishes this new 5G ecosystem. The technology is still set to release by 2020. The GC will still need to address how it will support radio frequencies between 600 and 3500 MHz, which are required for 5G networks. This range of frequencies is crucial as 600 MHz is one of the highest frequencies still able to reach individuals in more rural and remote regions of the country.
The Canadian Government has announced the investment of up to $40 million to support Nokia’s research on 5G technology in Canada. Nokia has launched multiple projects regarding data routing in optical networks, as well as the development of cybersecurity tools that will protect telecommunication networks as they move toward 5G.
Implications for Government Agencies
SSC will have an important role to play in ensuring that the GC departments have the tools, infrastructure, and architecture available when 5G launches on a large scale in the next few years. Thus, the rollout of 5G will have major implications for SSC.
As mentioned in the Business Brief, 5G offers three main advantages over the current 4G network: greater speed, lower latency, and the ability to connect many more devices at once. In practical terms, this means that 5G networks will be able to provide better access to cloud storage (and edge computing), the ability to run enterprise applications with greater “real-time” response, and the power to run more complex tasks virtually. These advantages couple well with the GC’s ongoing commitment to open-government and greater data sharing and collaboration from any device (including mobile) as elaborated in the Digital Operations Strategic Plan 2018-2022.
SSC has made considerable shifts in the modernization of the GC data centres, as well as the brokerage of cloud services in terms of data processing and storage. However, as technology evolves, edge computing will provide a complement to these two models. “By 2022, more than 50% of enterprise-generated data will be created and processed outside of the data centre or cloud” according to Gartner research. Edge computing is advancing as a solution to latency issues from one machine to another. 5G will help to improve bandwidth, and therefore latency issues in its own right, thus being able to support a greater density of edge and other devices. 5G will also help enable data to get to their end points (whether cloud or data center) faster for processing and storage.
There are weaknesses in terms of technological complexity, intensive computational and storage demands and a requirement for common software across all nodes. There are significant challenges particularly important within a governmental process. Truly digital assets with a single copy can be destroyed and a government network housing such assets would represent a very public target for malicious actors.
It is important to remember that Blockchain, while a technological innovation in transactional business and chain of digital custody, is not a single solution to transactional challenges facing the GC.
The amount of time and energy required to maintain the blockchain and create new blocks is not small and this is a frequent criticism of the technology. Conventional database entry, such as using SQL, takes only milliseconds, compared to blockchain, which takes several minutes. Due to the length of time required as well as the need for multiple computers to verify the blocks, blockchains consume an enormous amount of energy.
However, as technology advances, the blockchain consensus process takes closer to three minutes with Ethereum, which is currently among the most advanced blockchains available.xxiii Even older blockchains, such as Bitcoin, are still faster than traditional financial transactions, such as the stock exchange, which can take days to be verified and finalized. Despite this, services or transactions that require rapid speed, may not be suitable for blockchain.
There are also some concerns with respect to privacy. Since blockchain is built on the premise of decentralization and transparency, the data within the chain is technically available for anyone on the network, provided they have the computational power and knowledge to gain access. Instead of being identified on the network by name, users have encryption keys, which is a list of seemingly random numbers and letters.
While more private than a name or other demographic information, users could still be identified by their keys over time. Also, any data contained within a block that may have personal information that an individual wishes to keep private, such as medical records for example, may not be well suited for a blockchain as it will be transparent and visible to other users.
By using an agreed upon consensus algorithm, collaborative technology like Blockchain promises the ability to improve the business processes that occur between organizations and entities, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” The cost of trust is lowered because there is only one record of a transaction that needs to be kept and all stakeholders trust that record.
In a traditional transaction, all stakeholders have to keep a record of the transaction and in the case of a discrepancy, it was more difficult / costly to determine the accuracy of a record. As a result, Blockchain may offer significantly higher returns for each investment dollar spent than that of traditional internal investments. However, to doing so, it means collaborating with customers, citizens, suppliers and competitors in new ways.
Further research is needed to understand the potential impacts that blockchain could have on SSC as a service provider as well on the usage amounts the GC would require. SSC should consider the identification of client areas where blockchain may be leveraged. It may be required that client departments self-identify spaces which could benefit from blockchain processes.
A challenge for SSC will be to identify which partner organizations and enterprise solutions require priority blockchain pilot projects as well as be able to identify departments that emerge as leaders and how they deal with privacy, confidentiality, auditability, performance and scalability.
Lastly, SSC and the GC should consider the capacity issues in resources, network capabilities, and time required to create and maintain blockchain networks on its own. Blockchain is not a pedestrian technology, it will require dedicated teams that are appropriately resourced and financed in order for the technology to be deployed as any other service. SSC may wish to consider looking for private sector companies that specialize in providing Blockchain as a Service (BaaS), and determine the risk and cost benefits of outsourcing this process altogether.
|Figure 1. Hype Cycle for Blockchain Technologies, 2018||Figure 1. Rapport Hype Cycle sur les technologies de la chaîne de blocs, 2018|
|Blockchain Wallet Platform||Plate-forme de portefeuille de la chaîne de blocs|
|Blockchain Interoperability||Interopérabilité de la chaîne de blocs|
|Postquantum Blockchain||Chaîne de blocs post-quantique|
|Smart Contract Oracle||Oracle des contrats intelligents|
|Zero Knowledge Proofs||Preuve à divulgation nulle de connaissance|
|Distributed Storage in Blockchain||Stockage distribué dans la chaîne de blocs|
|Smart Contracts||Contrats intelligents|
|Blockchain for IAM||Chaîne de blocs pour la gestion des identités et de l’accès|
|Blockchain PaaS||Chaîne de blocs à titre de PaaS|
|Blockchain for Data Security||Chaîne de blocs pour la sécurité des données|
|Decentralized Applications||Applications décentralisées|
|Consensus Mechanisms||Mécanismes de consensus|
|Metacoin Platforms||Plates-formes de Metacoin|
|Multiparty Computing||Calcul multipartite|
|Cryptocurrency Hardware Wallets||Portefeuilles matériels de cryptomonnaie|
|Cryptocurrency Software Wallets||Portefeuilles logiciels de cryptomonnaie|
|Blockchain||Chaîne de blocs|
|Distributed Ledgers||Grands livres distribués|
|Cryptocurrency Mining||Minage de cryptomonnaie|
|Innovation Trigger||Déclencheur d’innovation|
|Peak of Inflated Exepctations||Pic des attentes exagérées|
|Trough of Disillusionment||Gouffre des désillusions|
|Slope of Enlightenment||Pente de l’illumination|
|Plateau of Productivity||Plateau de productivité|
|As of July 2018||En date de juillet 2018|
|Plateau will be reached:||Le plateau sera atteint :|
|Less than 2 years||dans moins de 2 ans|
|2 to 5 years||dans 2 à 5 ans|
|5 to 10 years||dans 5 à 10 ans|
|More than 10 years||dans plus de 10 ans|
|Obsolete before plateau||Désuet avant le plateau|
|Source: Gartner (July 2018)||Source : Gartner (juillet 2018)|
- Vallée, J.-C. L. (April 2018). [Vallée, J.-C. L. (April 2018). Adopting Blockchain to Improve Canadian Government Digital Services. Retrieved on 23 May 2019 Adopting Blockchain to Improve Canadian Government Digital Services]. Retrieved on 23 May 2019
- Diedrich, H. (2016). Ethereum: Blockchains, Digital Assets, Smart Contracts, Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.
- Treasury Board of Canada, Blockchain: Ideal Use Cases for the Government of Canada, 5.