PFAN - Participant's Manual

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375 – Gender (R)

$a – Gender (R)
$s – Start period (NR)
$t – End period (NR)
$u – Uniform Resource Identifier (R)
$v – Source of information (R)
$2 – Source of term (NR)

Gender is not a Core attribute for persons in RDA. Gender is a highly personal and sensitive attribute. Exercise restraint in adding gender terms to authority records, keeping in mind these PFAN best practices:

  1. Optionally record information about gender as the person self-identifies and explicitly discloses.
  2. Record masculin or féminin in accordance with the term used by the person, or with gendered pronouns and/or inflected nouns used in the source.
  3. Do not assume gender identity based on pictures or names.
  4. Do not dig for given names or genders assigned at birth.
  5. For transgender/transsexual persons, record the terms Transgenres or Transsexuels in accordance with the term used by the person.
  6. For well-known persons who publicly transition between males and female mid-life and have literary warrant for recording both genders, record both masculin and féminin and other terms as applicable.
  7. Record gender terms based on information in the source. For example, if a person claims to be a cisgender male, record Cisgenres $2rvm and masculin. If a person just says "en tant que jeune garçon [as a young boy] …" or uses male pronouns then record masculin, but do not assume he is cisgender or transgender.
  8. Record dates (375 $s and $t) associated with a gender only when the person explicitly provides dates of transition.
  9. Justify gender data recorded in the 375 field in a subfield $v or 670 field or both.
  10. Take into account the following considerations:
    • Is there potential for this information to harm the person through outing or violating the right to privacy?
    • Is there an indication that the person consents to having this information shared publicly?
    • Will including this information help a library user in the search process?

When recording a term indicating gender, prefer the terms: masculin and féminin. For these terms, do not capitalize or indicate the source of the term in the $2 subfield.

If neither of these terms is appropriate or sufficiently precise, record an appropriate term or phrase, preferably using a controlled vocabulary, such as the RVMGD or the Gender and sexual diversity glossary, recording the source in subfield 2. For consistency, capitalize the first term in each subfield $a for terms other than masculin and féminin.


100 1# $a Lenoir, Axelle, $d 1979-

375 ## $a Transgenres $2 rvmgd

375 ## $a féminin $s 2018

375 ## $a masculin $s 1979 $t 2018

Last Update : 2021-03-12

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Cross-references (4XX and 5XX) [New]

General overview

Add required cross-references to the authority record, including tags, subfields, delimiters, and diacritics. Search all cross-references to ensure they do not conflict with established authorized access points (1XX). A cross-reference (4XX) may conflict with a 4XX on another record. Keep in mind that normalization may result in conflicts between the authorized access point and 4XX forms of the name on the same NAR or other records. Such conflicts must be resolved.

Cross-references are formulated according to the same guidelines and instructions as authorized access points.

Apply the guidelines in RDA and the associated PFAN PSs when formulating cross-references.

Do not record a "see" reference (4XX) that would normalize to the same form as the 1XX in the same record or to the same form as the 1XX or 5XX in another name authority record. "See also" references (5XX) must be in the same form as their corresponding authorized access points.

Do not add references solely for automatic conflict detection and updating of bibliographic records. Inherent in the PFAN principles is the goal of making all cataloging workflows more efficient; since its inception the PFAN has recognized the need to have a file that is easily and efficiently used by all. This goal can only be achieved by an authority file that is uniform, i.e., predictable, in its construction and formulation of access points and references. Given the nature of the Program, it is impossible for the shared authority file to meet the database maintenance needs of each individual library. Catalogers are allowed to use judgment in making additional references and under RDA variants are not core, but the expectation is that those references would be constructed in the form consistent with the standard cataloging rules, practices, and policies currently used by all PFAN participants.

Last Update : 2022-03-22

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Simple 4XX "see" cross-references [New]

Variant access points are not core elements under RDA, and the AACR2/LCRI requirements for them no longer apply.

Nevertheless, the following guidelines represent PFAN best practice in the RDA environment. They are based on requirements that existed under AACR2.

Variant access points (4XX) should be justified by citation in the 670 or as required by RDA and the PFAN PSs.

NACO participants are no longer required to record linking references from pre-AACR2 headings found on bibliographic records.

References from former authorized access points are recorded with the following subfield: 4XX $w nne

This indicates that the cross-reference was formerly a fully established, valid AACR2 or RDA access point and its form is valid under RDA. The 4XX must match the former 1XX in the record.

Examples :

100 1# $a Volcano, Del Lagrace, $d 1957-
400 1# $w nne $a Grace, Della, $d 1957-

151 ## $a Hull (Gatineau, Québec)
451 ## $w nne $a Hull (Québec)

A reference from a former authorized access point that is not valid in form under RDA, e.g., because it contains an abbreviation that is no longer allowed, is recorded with the following subfield: 4XX $w nnea

The ending value “a” in subfield $w nnea causes the reference to be suppressed and not displayed in most systems.

Example :

100 1# $a Amiot, Françoise, $d environ 1660-1736
400 1# $w nnea $a Amiot, Françoise, $d ca 1660-1736

Use of subfield $w nnea is recommended when providing a reference from a former authorized access point with an open date, when the authorized access point is updated to close the date:

Example :

100 1# $a Freni, Mirella, $d 1935-2020
400 1# $w nnea $a Freni, Mirella, $d 1935-

Because each element in the hierarchy of an access point must be in the established form, variant access points must sometimes be given in a mixture of languages. Other forms can be given in a single subfield based on usage, if considered useful.

Examples :

110 2# $a Nations Unies. $b Commission du droit international
410 2# $a Nations Unies. $b Comisión de Derecho Internacional
410 2# $a Naciones Unidas, Comisión de Derecho Internacional
410 2# $a Naciones Unidas. $b Comisión de Derecho Internacional
670 ## $a Site Web des Nations Unies, 10 février 2014 $b (Naciones Unidas, Comisión de Derecho Internacional)

110 2# $a Zhongguo yi qi yi biao xue hui. $b Jing mi ji xie fen hui
410 2# $a Zhongguo yi qi yi biao xue hui. $b Precision Machinery Branch
410 2# $a Chinese Society of Apparatus and Instruments, Precision Machinery Branch
410 2# Chinese Society of Apparatus and Instruments. $b Precision Machinery Branch
670 ## $a Guang xue, jing mi gong cheng, 1998, 1: $b couverture (Zhongguo yi qi yi biao xue hui jing mi ji xie fen hui) colophon (Precision Machinery Branch, Chinese Society of Apparatus and Instruments)

Personal names

Record a reference from each variant that affects the primary elements of the name. Generally, this means variations in all elements to the left of the comma and in the first element to the right of the comma.

Refer from other variants (i.e., those that do not affect the primary entry elements) when it is judged that access to the catalog would be improved, as in the case of differing search strategies in other databases. For example, additional cross-references may be given for variants with common surnames.

Generally, provide one reference from each possible entry element of the name chosen as the authorized access point.

Generally, make only one reference from each variant. When in doubt, generally do not provide references for “variants of variants.”

In references with initials, the full form may be added in subfield $q, if considered important for identification.

Examples :

100 1# $a Burne-Jones, Edward Coley, $d 1833-1898
400 1# $a Jones, Edward Coley Burne-, $d 1833-1898
400 1# $a Burne-Jones, Edward, $d 1833-1898
400 1# $a Burne-Jones, E. $q (Edward), $d 1833-1898

100 1# $a Carpinter, James D., $d 1803-1875
400 1# $a Carpinter, J. D. $q (James D.), $d 1803-1875

100 1# $a Smith, John, $d 1908-1994
400 1# $a Smith, John William, $d 1908-1994

In the example above, since "John Smith" is a very common name, it is a good idea to record this cross-reference even though the primary elements are the same in the 100 and 400 fields.

Examples :

100 0# $a H. D. $q (Hilda Doolittle), $d 1886-1961
400 1# $a Aldington, Hilda Doolittle, $d 1886-1961
400 1# $a D., H. $q (Hilda Doolittle), $d 1886-1961

100 1# $a Williams, J. Llewellyn $q (John Llewellyn)
400 1# $a Williams, John Llewellyn

100 1# $a Sword, Penelope Haley, $d 1736-
400 1# $a Haley, Penelope, $d 1736-

Corporate names

Include additions in the reference if appropriate to the form of the reference. Certain additions may be inappropriate in the authorized access point and/or reference. Additions may be made to a reference consisting solely of an initialism.

Examples :

110 2# $a Galleria nazionale d'arte moderna (Italie)
410 2# $a Galerie nationale d'art moderne (Italie)

110 2# $a International Business Machines Corporation
410 2# $a IBM

110 1# $a États-Unis. $b Central Intelligence Agency
410 2# $a Central Intelligence Agency (É.-U.)
410 2# $a CIA (Central Intelligence Agency)

110 2# $a LGS (Firme)
410 2# $a Société conseil Groupe LGS

110 2# $a Atelier De Distelkamp
410 2# $a Distelkamp (Firme)

Last Update : 2022-07-15

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