Difference between revisions of "Technology Trends/Blockchain"

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<div style="border: 1px solid red; background-color: rgba(255, 0, 0, 0.3);">This page is a work in progress. We welcome your feedback. Please use the discussion page for suggestions and comments. When the page is approved and finalized, we will send it for translation.</div>
<div style="border:solid 4px #ffa200;
 
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border-radius: 24px; padding:1%; width:auto;">Version 1.0 - Draft to be posted soon</div>
 
 
 
This page is a work in progress. We welcome your feedback. Please use the discussion page for suggestions and comments. When the page is approved and finalized, we will send it for translation.
 
  
 
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     <tr><td colspan="2" style="text-align: center;">[[File:Blockchain_logo.png|200px]]</td></tr>
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    <tr><th colspan="2">Blockchain</th></tr>
      |name        =  
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       <th>Initial release</th>
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       <td>May 23, 2019</td>
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      |image        = [[File:Blockchain_logo.png|200px]]
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       <th>Latest version</th>
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       <td>May 23, 2019</td>
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       <th>Development File</th>
 
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       <td>[https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system Github Repository]</td>
      |header1 = <b>Blockchain</b>
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       <th>GitHub repository</th>
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       <td>[https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system Github Repository]</td>
      |label3  = Developer
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      |data3  = Digital Collaboration Division
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      |label4  = Initial release
 
       |data4  = September 24, 2018
 
       |label5  = Latest version
 
       |data5  = V1, September 24, 2018
 
      |label6  = Website
 
       |data6  = [https://design.gccollab.ca/ design.gccollab.ca]
 
       |label7  = UI kit
 
      |data7  = [https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system/blob/master/master_ui_kit.ai/ Download UI kit]
 
       |label8  = GitHub repository
 
       |data8  = [https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system Github Repository]
 
 
 
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'''Aurora design system''' is a central design guide developed in 2018 by the Digital Collaboration Division within the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat of the Government of Canada. It was built through a collaborative effort between various designers, developers and writers across the Government of Canada.
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<b>Blockchain</b> is a list of digital records (called blocks) that are securely linked together to form a chain using secure encryption and time stamps. Blockchains form a digital ledger, which is a history of transaction records that can be accessed by multiple users but cannot be individually modified.
  
Lead by the Digital Collaboration Division at the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Aurora design system was created in collaboration with the Canadian Digital Service: Talent Cloud, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and other individuals within Government of Canada. Aurora design system was created to standardize the visual language and user experience of the Open Accessible Digital Workplace's online applications and tools.
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The theory behind blockchain was first described in 1991. The desire was to create a system in which documents could be timestamped and linked together digitally or cryptographically. In 2008, someone or a group of people, known as Satoshi Nakamoto, created the first cryptocurrency known as Bitcoin. The creation of Bitcoin in 2008 also unveiled the technology behind it - Blockchain. Blockchain provides the means for recording bitcoin transactions (as a shared ledger), which can be used to record any transaction and track the movement of any asset that is tangible, intangible or digital.
  
 
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<h2>1. Business Brief</h2>
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<h2>Business Brief</h2>
Blockchain is a list of digital records (called blocks) that are securely linked together to form a chain using secure encryption and time stamps. Blockchains form a digital ledger, which is a history of transaction records that can be accessed by multiple users but cannot be individually modified.
 
 
 
The theory behind blockchain was first described in 1991. The desire was to create a system in which documents could be timestamped and linked together digitally or cryptographically. In 2008, someone or a group of people, known as Satoshi Nakamoto, created the first cryptocurrency known as Bitcoin. The creation of Bitcoin in 2008 also unveiled the technology behind it - Blockchain. Blockchain provides the means for recording bitcoin transactions (as a shared ledger), which can be used to record any transaction and track the movement of any asset that is tangible, intangible or digital.
 
 
 
 
Due to increasing mistrust around data sharing by some large corporations, as well as the financial crisis earlier that year, there was a growing desire for a means in which personal data or currency could be held individually. It needed to be decentralized and needed to reduce the requirement for middlemen, such as banks, brokers, or insurance companies. As the first of its kind, blockchain technology was revolutionary.
 
Due to increasing mistrust around data sharing by some large corporations, as well as the financial crisis earlier that year, there was a growing desire for a means in which personal data or currency could be held individually. It needed to be decentralized and needed to reduce the requirement for middlemen, such as banks, brokers, or insurance companies. As the first of its kind, blockchain technology was revolutionary.
  
 
While blockchain technology has begun to expand since its creation, when it first began, users were exclusively individuals. While individual uses involving cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin are still in existence, companies such as Ethereum, Golem, and Blockstack have since emerged and also employ blockchain technology for the rendering of “smart contracts” between individual parties, the sharing of computer processing power and open-source app development respectively. However, the technology is still deemed immature and underutilized. Of the respondents to Gartner’s 2018 CIO Survey, only 1% have invested in and deployed blockchain technology.
 
While blockchain technology has begun to expand since its creation, when it first began, users were exclusively individuals. While individual uses involving cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin are still in existence, companies such as Ethereum, Golem, and Blockstack have since emerged and also employ blockchain technology for the rendering of “smart contracts” between individual parties, the sharing of computer processing power and open-source app development respectively. However, the technology is still deemed immature and underutilized. Of the respondents to Gartner’s 2018 CIO Survey, only 1% have invested in and deployed blockchain technology.
  
<h2>2. Technology Brief</h2>
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<h2>Technology Brief</h2>
 
In contrast to traditional records of transactions, which often require an intermediary such as a bank or other administrator, and involve multiple records of the same transaction, the data or transaction records contained within a blockchain are decentralized. For example, in a traditional purchase, a consumer would have a record, the merchant would have a record, a supplier would have a record, and an auditor or accountant would have a record. The bank would also have a record. All of these records are kept separately. Therefore, this process requires a great deal of trust between the individual parties that one record will not be tampered with or lost.
 
In contrast to traditional records of transactions, which often require an intermediary such as a bank or other administrator, and involve multiple records of the same transaction, the data or transaction records contained within a blockchain are decentralized. For example, in a traditional purchase, a consumer would have a record, the merchant would have a record, a supplier would have a record, and an auditor or accountant would have a record. The bank would also have a record. All of these records are kept separately. Therefore, this process requires a great deal of trust between the individual parties that one record will not be tampered with or lost.
  
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Despite this natural resistance to attacks, it was reported in the MIT Technology Review that security holes are increasingly appearing in cryptocurrency and smart contract platforms. In some cases, the security issues are fundamental to the way the platforms were built. By gaining control of more than half of the network’s computer power, a hacker was attempting to rewrite the transaction history of the exchange platform for cryptocurrency called Coinbase, allowing for the same cryptocurrency to be spent more than once to a total value of $1.1 million.
 
Despite this natural resistance to attacks, it was reported in the MIT Technology Review that security holes are increasingly appearing in cryptocurrency and smart contract platforms. In some cases, the security issues are fundamental to the way the platforms were built. By gaining control of more than half of the network’s computer power, a hacker was attempting to rewrite the transaction history of the exchange platform for cryptocurrency called Coinbase, allowing for the same cryptocurrency to be spent more than once to a total value of $1.1 million.
  
<h2>3. Industry Usage</h2>
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<h2>Industry Usage</h2>
 
The most well-known use of blockchain is in support of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. A digital currency launched in 2009, Bitcoin does not rely on a monetary authority to monitor verify or approve transactions, but rather relies on a peer-to-peer computer network made up of its users’ machines to do that. Blockchain can be used for all sorts of inter-organizational cooperation. In 2017, Harvard Business Review estimated that approximately 15% of banks are expected to be using blockchain.
 
The most well-known use of blockchain is in support of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. A digital currency launched in 2009, Bitcoin does not rely on a monetary authority to monitor verify or approve transactions, but rather relies on a peer-to-peer computer network made up of its users’ machines to do that. Blockchain can be used for all sorts of inter-organizational cooperation. In 2017, Harvard Business Review estimated that approximately 15% of banks are expected to be using blockchain.
  
 
Although Bitcoin is the first and most well-known use of the blockchain technology, it is only one of about seven hundred applications that use the blockchain distributed ledger system. Blockchain is a digital ledger on top of which organizations can build trusted applications, via a secure chain of custody for digital records.
 
Although Bitcoin is the first and most well-known use of the blockchain technology, it is only one of about seven hundred applications that use the blockchain distributed ledger system. Blockchain is a digital ledger on top of which organizations can build trusted applications, via a secure chain of custody for digital records.
  
<h2>4. Canadian Government Use</h2>
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<h2>Canadian Government Use</h2>
 
Canada does not currently have a federal policy on blockchain. While blockchain is an important emerging technology, how it could be used by the Government remains to be seen. At this point, the ideal GC use case for blockchain would be a system of public record to register secure transactions from multiple contributors toward distributing a single source of truth in a non-refutable fashion.
 
Canada does not currently have a federal policy on blockchain. While blockchain is an important emerging technology, how it could be used by the Government remains to be seen. At this point, the ideal GC use case for blockchain would be a system of public record to register secure transactions from multiple contributors toward distributing a single source of truth in a non-refutable fashion.
  
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This included establishing a digital economy commission, which will be tasked with developing solid recommendations regarding how Canada can become a leader in developing technologies such as blockchain, quantum computing, artificial intelligence and self-driving vehicles. It also recommended getting governments currently using blockchain to transform their own operations and provide examples of how the technology can benefit public sectors in Canada and abroad.  Governments could use blockchain to verify the payment of taxes and manage public services more efficiently.
 
This included establishing a digital economy commission, which will be tasked with developing solid recommendations regarding how Canada can become a leader in developing technologies such as blockchain, quantum computing, artificial intelligence and self-driving vehicles. It also recommended getting governments currently using blockchain to transform their own operations and provide examples of how the technology can benefit public sectors in Canada and abroad.  Governments could use blockchain to verify the payment of taxes and manage public services more efficiently.
  
<h2>5. Implications for Government Agencies</h2>
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<h2>Implications for Government Agencies</h2>
 
<h3>Shared Services Canada (SSC)</h3>
 
<h3>Shared Services Canada (SSC)</h3>
  
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Cette page est en cours de travail. On encourage les commentaires.
<div style="border:solid 4px #ffa200;
 
-moz-border-radius: 24px;
 
-webkit-border-radius: 24px;
 
border-radius: 24px; padding:1%; width:auto;">Version 1.0 - Draft to be posted soon</div>
 
 
 
 
This page is a work in progress. We welcome your feedback. Please use the discussion page for suggestions and comments. When the page is approved and finalized, we will send it for translation.
 
This page is a work in progress. We welcome your feedback. Please use the discussion page for suggestions and comments. When the page is approved and finalized, we will send it for translation.
  
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    <tr><th colspan="2">Blockchain</th></tr>
      |name        =
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       <th>Version initiale</th>
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       <td>23 mai 2019</td>
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      |image        = [[File:Aurora_Logo.png|303px]]
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       <td>23 mai 2019</td>
      |caption      = Aurora design system logo
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       <td>[https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system Github Repository]</td>
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       |label3  = Developer
 
      |data3  = Digital Collaboration Division
 
      |label4  = Initial release
 
      |data4  = September 24, 2018
 
      |label5  = Latest version
 
      |data5  = V1, September 24, 2018
 
      |label6  = Website
 
      |data6  = [https://design.gccollab.ca/ design.gccollab.ca]
 
       |label7  = UI kit
 
      |data7  = [https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system/blob/master/master_ui_kit.ai/ Download UI kit]
 
       |label8  = GitHub repository
 
       |data8  = [https://github.com/gctools-outilsgc/design-system Github Repository]
 
 
 
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'''Aurora design system''' is a central design guide developed in 2018 by the Digital Collaboration Division within the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat of the Government of Canada. It was built through a collaborative effort between various designers, developers and writers across the Government of Canada.
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La <b>chaîne de blocs</b> est une liste de dossiers numériques (appelés blocs) qui sont liés de manière sécuritaire pour former une chaîne au moyen d’un chiffrement sécurisé et d’horodateurs. Les chaînes de blocs forment un grand livre numérique qui constitue un historique des transactions enregistrées auxquelles peuvent accéder de multiples utilisateurs, mais qui ne peuvent pas être modifiées individuellement.
  
Lead by the Digital Collaboration Division at the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat, Aurora design system was created in collaboration with the Canadian Digital Service: Talent Cloud, Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, and other individuals within Government of Canada. Aurora design system was created to standardize the visual language and user experience of the Open Accessible Digital Workplace's online applications and tools.
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La théorie derrière la chaîne de blocs a été décrite pour la première fois en 1991. On souhaitait alors créer un système dans lequel les documents pouvaient être horodatés et liés entre eux de manière numérique ou cryptographique. En 2008, une personne ou un groupe de personnes œuvrant sous le pseudonyme « Satoshi Nakamoto » a créé la première cryptomonnaie, le Bitcoin. La création du Bitcoin en 2008 a également mis à jour la technologie derrière cette cryptomonnaie : la chaîne de blocs. La chaîne de blocs permet de consigner les transactions de Bitcoins (en tant que grand livre partagé) et peut être utilisée pour consigner toute transaction et suivre les déplacements de tout élément d’actif corporel, incorporel ou numérique.
  
 
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<h2>1. Sommaire opérationnel</h2>
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<h2>Sommaire opérationnel</h2>
La chaîne de blocs est une liste de dossiers numériques (appelés blocs) qui sont liés de manière sécuritaire pour former une chaîne au moyen d’un chiffrement sécurisé et d’horodateurs. Les chaînes de blocs forment un grand livre numérique qui constitue un historique des transactions enregistrées auxquelles peuvent accéder de multiples utilisateurs, mais qui ne peuvent pas être modifiées individuellement.
 
 
 
La théorie derrière la chaîne de blocs a été décrite pour la première fois en 1991. On souhaitait alors créer un système dans lequel les documents pouvaient être horodatés et liés entre eux de manière numérique ou cryptographique. En 2008, une personne ou un groupe de personnes œuvrant sous le pseudonyme « Satoshi Nakamoto » a créé la première cryptomonnaie, le Bitcoin. La création du Bitcoin en 2008 a également mis à jour la technologie derrière cette cryptomonnaie : la chaîne de blocs. La chaîne de blocs permet de consigner les transactions de Bitcoins (en tant que grand livre partagé) et peut être utilisée pour consigner toute transaction et suivre les déplacements de tout élément d’actif corporel, incorporel ou numérique.
 
 
 
 
En raison de la méfiance croissante à l’égard du partage de données par certaines grandes entreprises et de la crise financière ayant eu lieu plus tôt pendant l’année, on recherche de plus en plus un moyen pour que chaque personne ait le contrôle de ses propres données et de son propre argent. Ce moyen devait être décentralisé et réduire la nécessité d’un intermédiaire, comme les banques, les courtiers ou les compagnies d’assurances. En tant que première technologie en son genre, la chaîne de blocs était révolutionnairei.
 
En raison de la méfiance croissante à l’égard du partage de données par certaines grandes entreprises et de la crise financière ayant eu lieu plus tôt pendant l’année, on recherche de plus en plus un moyen pour que chaque personne ait le contrôle de ses propres données et de son propre argent. Ce moyen devait être décentralisé et réduire la nécessité d’un intermédiaire, comme les banques, les courtiers ou les compagnies d’assurances. En tant que première technologie en son genre, la chaîne de blocs était révolutionnairei.
  
 
Bien que la technologie de la chaîne de blocs ait commencé à prendre de l’expansion depuis sa création, à ses débuts, les utilisateurs étaient exclusivement des particuliers. Il y a toujours des individus qui utilisent des cryptomonnaies comme le Bitcoin; toutefois, des entreprises comme Ethereum, Golem et Blockstack sont apparues et font également appel à la technologie de la chaîne de blocs pour la création de « contrats intelligents » entre des parties, le partage de la puissance de traitement des ordinateurs et le développement d’applications ouvertes, respectivement. Toutefois, la technologie est toujours considérée comme étant immature et sous­utilisée. Parmi les répondants au sondage mené par Gartner auprès des dirigeants principaux de l’information de 2018, seulement 1 % ont investi dans la technologie de la chaîne de blocs et déployé celle-ciii.
 
Bien que la technologie de la chaîne de blocs ait commencé à prendre de l’expansion depuis sa création, à ses débuts, les utilisateurs étaient exclusivement des particuliers. Il y a toujours des individus qui utilisent des cryptomonnaies comme le Bitcoin; toutefois, des entreprises comme Ethereum, Golem et Blockstack sont apparues et font également appel à la technologie de la chaîne de blocs pour la création de « contrats intelligents » entre des parties, le partage de la puissance de traitement des ordinateurs et le développement d’applications ouvertes, respectivement. Toutefois, la technologie est toujours considérée comme étant immature et sous­utilisée. Parmi les répondants au sondage mené par Gartner auprès des dirigeants principaux de l’information de 2018, seulement 1 % ont investi dans la technologie de la chaîne de blocs et déployé celle-ciii.
  
<h2>2. Sommaire technique</h2>
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<h2>Sommaire technique</h2>
 
Les données et registres de transactions contenus dans une chaîne de blocs sont décentralisés, contrairement aux registres de transactions traditionnels, qui nécessitent souvent un intermédiaire comme une banque ou un autre administrateur et qui comportent la plupart du temps de multiples enregistrements d’une même transaction. Par exemple, dans le contexte d’un achat traditionnel, le consommateur a un
 
Les données et registres de transactions contenus dans une chaîne de blocs sont décentralisés, contrairement aux registres de transactions traditionnels, qui nécessitent souvent un intermédiaire comme une banque ou un autre administrateur et qui comportent la plupart du temps de multiples enregistrements d’une même transaction. Par exemple, dans le contexte d’un achat traditionnel, le consommateur a un
  
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Malgré la résistance naturelle aux attaques de la chaîne de blocs, la revue MIT Technology Review a signalé que de plus en plus de failles de sécurité apparaissent dans la cryptomonnaie et les plates­formes de contrats intelligents. Dans certains cas, les problèmes de sécurité sont au cœur de la conception des plates­formes. En obtenant le contrôle de la puissance de plus de la moitié des ordinateurs du réseau, un pirate a tenté de réécrire l’historique des transactions de la plate­forme d’échange de cryptomonnaie appelée Coinbase et de faire en sorte que la même cryptomonnaie puisse être dépensée plus d’une fois, pour une valeur totale de 1,1 million de dollarsiii.
 
Malgré la résistance naturelle aux attaques de la chaîne de blocs, la revue MIT Technology Review a signalé que de plus en plus de failles de sécurité apparaissent dans la cryptomonnaie et les plates­formes de contrats intelligents. Dans certains cas, les problèmes de sécurité sont au cœur de la conception des plates­formes. En obtenant le contrôle de la puissance de plus de la moitié des ordinateurs du réseau, un pirate a tenté de réécrire l’historique des transactions de la plate­forme d’échange de cryptomonnaie appelée Coinbase et de faire en sorte que la même cryptomonnaie puisse être dépensée plus d’une fois, pour une valeur totale de 1,1 million de dollarsiii.
  
<h2>3. Utilisation par l'industrie</h2>
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<h2>Utilisation par l'industrie</h2>
 
L’utilisation la plus connue de la chaîne de blocs est liée aux cryptomonnaies, comme le Bitcoin. Cette monnaie numérique, lancée en 2009, ne fait pas appel à une autorité monétaire pour surveiller, vérifier ou approuver les transactions, mais se sert plutôt d’un réseau d’ordinateurs de pair à pair composé des appareils de ses utilisateurs pour le faire. La chaîne de blocs peut servir à toutes sortes d’opérations de coopération interorganisationnelles. En 2017, la revue Harvard Business Review a estimé que l’on s’attend à ce qu’environ 15 % des banques utilisent la chaîne de blocsiv.
 
L’utilisation la plus connue de la chaîne de blocs est liée aux cryptomonnaies, comme le Bitcoin. Cette monnaie numérique, lancée en 2009, ne fait pas appel à une autorité monétaire pour surveiller, vérifier ou approuver les transactions, mais se sert plutôt d’un réseau d’ordinateurs de pair à pair composé des appareils de ses utilisateurs pour le faire. La chaîne de blocs peut servir à toutes sortes d’opérations de coopération interorganisationnelles. En 2017, la revue Harvard Business Review a estimé que l’on s’attend à ce qu’environ 15 % des banques utilisent la chaîne de blocsiv.
  
 
Même si le Bitcoin est la première et plus populaire technologie de chaîne de blocs, il ne s’agit que de l’une des quelque 700 applications qui utilisent le système de grand livre distribué au moyen de la chaîne de blocs. La chaîne de blocs est un grand livre numérique à partir duquel les organisations peuvent construire des applications dignes de confiance, par l’intermédiaire d’une chaîne de possession sécurisée pour les registres numériques.
 
Même si le Bitcoin est la première et plus populaire technologie de chaîne de blocs, il ne s’agit que de l’une des quelque 700 applications qui utilisent le système de grand livre distribué au moyen de la chaîne de blocs. La chaîne de blocs est un grand livre numérique à partir duquel les organisations peuvent construire des applications dignes de confiance, par l’intermédiaire d’une chaîne de possession sécurisée pour les registres numériques.
  
<h2>4. Utilisation par le gouvernement du Canada</h2>
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<h2>Utilisation par le gouvernement du Canada</h2>
 
Actuellement, le Canada n’a pas de politique fédérale sur la chaîne de blocs. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une importante technologie émergente, la manière dont le gouvernement pourrait s’en servir reste à déterminer. À l’heure actuelle, l’utilisation idéale de la chaîne de blocs par le gouvernement du Canada consisterait en un système de registres publics permettant de consigner les transactions sécurisées effectuées par de multiples parties dans le but de distribuer une source unique de faits non réfutables.
 
Actuellement, le Canada n’a pas de politique fédérale sur la chaîne de blocs. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une importante technologie émergente, la manière dont le gouvernement pourrait s’en servir reste à déterminer. À l’heure actuelle, l’utilisation idéale de la chaîne de blocs par le gouvernement du Canada consisterait en un système de registres publics permettant de consigner les transactions sécurisées effectuées par de multiples parties dans le but de distribuer une source unique de faits non réfutables.
  
Line 291: Line 236:
 
Ces projets comprenaient l’établissement d’une commission sur l’économie numérique, qui se verra confier la tâche de formuler des recommandations solides sur la manière dont le Canada pourrait devenir un leader dans les technologies en développement comme la chaîne de blocs, l’informatique quantique, l’intelligence artificielle et les véhicules autonomes. Il est également recommandé d’inciter les gouvernements qui utilisent actuellement la chaîne de blocs à transformer leurs propres opérations et à donner des exemples de la manière dont cette technologie pourrait être bénéfique pour le secteur public du Canada et d’ailleurs dans le monde. Les gouvernements pourraient utiliser la chaîne de blocs afin de vérifier le paiement des impôts et gérer plus efficacement les services publics.
 
Ces projets comprenaient l’établissement d’une commission sur l’économie numérique, qui se verra confier la tâche de formuler des recommandations solides sur la manière dont le Canada pourrait devenir un leader dans les technologies en développement comme la chaîne de blocs, l’informatique quantique, l’intelligence artificielle et les véhicules autonomes. Il est également recommandé d’inciter les gouvernements qui utilisent actuellement la chaîne de blocs à transformer leurs propres opérations et à donner des exemples de la manière dont cette technologie pourrait être bénéfique pour le secteur public du Canada et d’ailleurs dans le monde. Les gouvernements pourraient utiliser la chaîne de blocs afin de vérifier le paiement des impôts et gérer plus efficacement les services publics.
  
<h2>5. Répercussions pour les agences gouvernementales</h2>
+
<h2>Répercussions pour les agences gouvernementales</h2>
 
<h3>Services partagés Canada (SPC)</h3>
 
<h3>Services partagés Canada (SPC)</h3>
  

Revision as of 16:07, 12 June 2019


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Blockchain
Initial release May 23, 2019
Latest version May 23, 2019
Development File Github Repository
GitHub repository Github Repository

Blockchain is a list of digital records (called blocks) that are securely linked together to form a chain using secure encryption and time stamps. Blockchains form a digital ledger, which is a history of transaction records that can be accessed by multiple users but cannot be individually modified.

The theory behind blockchain was first described in 1991. The desire was to create a system in which documents could be timestamped and linked together digitally or cryptographically. In 2008, someone or a group of people, known as Satoshi Nakamoto, created the first cryptocurrency known as Bitcoin. The creation of Bitcoin in 2008 also unveiled the technology behind it - Blockchain. Blockchain provides the means for recording bitcoin transactions (as a shared ledger), which can be used to record any transaction and track the movement of any asset that is tangible, intangible or digital.

Business Brief

Due to increasing mistrust around data sharing by some large corporations, as well as the financial crisis earlier that year, there was a growing desire for a means in which personal data or currency could be held individually. It needed to be decentralized and needed to reduce the requirement for middlemen, such as banks, brokers, or insurance companies. As the first of its kind, blockchain technology was revolutionary.

While blockchain technology has begun to expand since its creation, when it first began, users were exclusively individuals. While individual uses involving cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin are still in existence, companies such as Ethereum, Golem, and Blockstack have since emerged and also employ blockchain technology for the rendering of “smart contracts” between individual parties, the sharing of computer processing power and open-source app development respectively. However, the technology is still deemed immature and underutilized. Of the respondents to Gartner’s 2018 CIO Survey, only 1% have invested in and deployed blockchain technology.

Technology Brief

In contrast to traditional records of transactions, which often require an intermediary such as a bank or other administrator, and involve multiple records of the same transaction, the data or transaction records contained within a blockchain are decentralized. For example, in a traditional purchase, a consumer would have a record, the merchant would have a record, a supplier would have a record, and an auditor or accountant would have a record. The bank would also have a record. All of these records are kept separately. Therefore, this process requires a great deal of trust between the individual parties that one record will not be tampered with or lost.

With a blockchain transaction, each of the parties involved (called nodes, users or miners), all have the same replica of a ledger, which is contained in the blockchain on a peer-to-peer (or node-to-node) network. As a result, the bank and the traditional merchant databases traditionally used to record and organize the data in ledger would be eliminated (i.e. transaction time and date, product, buyer).

In order to form a block or a blockchain, each user requires a specialized computer and mining software. A blockchain is managed and verified collaboratively on a network accessed by multiple users or nodes. These users work collaboratively and use mining and “consensus algorithms” to solve complex mathematical problems. A consensus algorithm is an agreed-upon process for solving calculations and there are several used in blockchain technology depending on the type of calculation to be solved and the type of data to be verified.

Blockchain’s decentralized, open and cryptographic nature allows people to trust each other and perform perform peer to peer transactions, which removes the need for intermediaries. It is resistant to hacking attacks that impact centralized intermediaries like banks because to succeed, an attacker would need to hack both the specific block in a blockchain as well as every one of the other potentially million ledgers in the network simultaneously. This would be a difficult endeavor given that the blocks are secured with both public and private keys and require verification by multiple individual users and computers. Even if it were possible, they would also need to update every subsequent transaction in the chain and overwrite every other copy of the ledger in the network to ensure integrity of the new chain.

Despite this natural resistance to attacks, it was reported in the MIT Technology Review that security holes are increasingly appearing in cryptocurrency and smart contract platforms. In some cases, the security issues are fundamental to the way the platforms were built. By gaining control of more than half of the network’s computer power, a hacker was attempting to rewrite the transaction history of the exchange platform for cryptocurrency called Coinbase, allowing for the same cryptocurrency to be spent more than once to a total value of $1.1 million.

Industry Usage

The most well-known use of blockchain is in support of cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin. A digital currency launched in 2009, Bitcoin does not rely on a monetary authority to monitor verify or approve transactions, but rather relies on a peer-to-peer computer network made up of its users’ machines to do that. Blockchain can be used for all sorts of inter-organizational cooperation. In 2017, Harvard Business Review estimated that approximately 15% of banks are expected to be using blockchain.

Although Bitcoin is the first and most well-known use of the blockchain technology, it is only one of about seven hundred applications that use the blockchain distributed ledger system. Blockchain is a digital ledger on top of which organizations can build trusted applications, via a secure chain of custody for digital records.

Canadian Government Use

Canada does not currently have a federal policy on blockchain. While blockchain is an important emerging technology, how it could be used by the Government remains to be seen. At this point, the ideal GC use case for blockchain would be a system of public record to register secure transactions from multiple contributors toward distributing a single source of truth in a non-refutable fashion.

According to Gartner, there is no Government around the world that is operating a true blockchain initiative , although some (State of Georgia, Hong Kong, United Arab Emirate) are operating pseudo-initiatives and starting to experiment with the technology. Treasury Board of Canada notes highlights a few specific initiatives: Estonia uses an eHealth Foundation partnership to accelerate blockchain-based systems to ensure security, transparency, and auditability of patient healthcare records. Singapore employs the use of blockchain to prevent traders from defrauding banks through a unique distributed ledger-based system focused on preventing invoice fraud.

In 2017, “The Blockchain Corridor: Building an Innovation Economy in the 2nd Era of the Internet” was developed, discussing ways to turn Canada into a global hub for the “Blockchain revolution.” Written by a high-tech think tank and prepared for / partially funded by the federal Department of Innovation, Science and Economic Development (ISED), the report lays out a few proposals regarding how to cement Canada’s role as a world leader in blockchain technology. The Canadian Government announced in July 2017 the intention to run at least 6 select pilot projects on the use of blockchain.

This included establishing a digital economy commission, which will be tasked with developing solid recommendations regarding how Canada can become a leader in developing technologies such as blockchain, quantum computing, artificial intelligence and self-driving vehicles. It also recommended getting governments currently using blockchain to transform their own operations and provide examples of how the technology can benefit public sectors in Canada and abroad. Governments could use blockchain to verify the payment of taxes and manage public services more efficiently.

Implications for Government Agencies

Shared Services Canada (SSC)

Value Proposition

Collaborative technologies like blockchain promise the ability to improve the business processes that occur between organizations and entities, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” As a result, blockchain may offer significantly higher returns for each investment dollar spent than that of traditional internal investments, but in doing so means collaborating with customers, citizens, suppliers and competitors in new ways. Blockchain offers a numbers of benefits to the Government of Canada, such as a reduction in costs and complexity, trusted record keeping and user-centric privacy control. It offers significant opportunities in terms of a single source for public records, support for multiple contributors and a technology ideal for multi-jurisdictional interactions. Due to its decentralized, collaborative nature, it potentially aligns well with policies and practices around Open Government, which aim to make Government services, data, and digital records more accessible to Canadians.

By eliminating the duplication and reducing the need for intermediaries, blockchain technology could be used by SSC to speed-up aspects of service delivery. A challenge for SSC in terms of blockchain will be to identify which enterprise solutions emerge as leaders and how they deal with privacy, confidentiality, auditability, performance and scalability.

Currently, a number of Government agencies are engaged in Blockchain in a number of ways. Maybe SSC could support the following departments in their initiatives to explore how Blockchain can help solve these issues:

  • Elections Canada – practical applications to support Voter List Management, Secure Identity Management, and management of electoral geography.
  • Financial Transactions and Reports Analysis Centre of Canada – exploring implications for anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism financing.
  • Public Safety Canada – focused on various uses and misuses of virtual currencies, such as extortion or blackmail.
  • Natural Resources Canada – use as a public registry for the disclosure of payments under the Extractive Sectors Transparency Measures Act.
  • Bank of Canada – exploring a proof of concept model alongside Payments Canada, Canadian commercial banks and the R3 consortium.
  • ISED – engagement with Government departments, provincial-territorial-municipal partners, and key industry players.

Challenges

There are weaknesses in terms of technological complexity, intensive computational and storage demands and a requirement for common software across all nodes. There are significant challenges particularly important within a governmental process. Truly digital assets with a single copy can be destroyed and a government network housing such assets would represent a very public target for malicious actors.

It is important to remember that Blockchain, while a technological innovation in transactional business and chain of digital custody, is not a single solution to transactional challenges facing the GC.

The amount of time and energy required to maintain the blockchain and create new blocks is not small and this is a frequent criticism of the technology. Conventional database entry, such as using SQL, takes only milliseconds, compared to blockchain, which takes several minutes. Due to the length of time required as well as the need for multiple computers to verify the blocks, blockchains consume an enormous amount of energy. However, as technology advances, the blockchain consensus process takes closer to three minutes with Ethereum, which is currently among the most advanced blockchains available.xxiii Even older blockchains, such as Bitcoin, are still faster than traditional financial transactions, such as the stock exchange, which can take days to be verified and finalized. Despite this, services or transactions that require rapid speed, may not be suitable for blockchain.

There are also some concerns with respect to privacy. Since blockchain is built on the premise of decentralization and transparency, the data within the chain is technically available for anyone on the network, provided they have the computational power and knowledge to gain access. Instead of being identified on the network by name, users have encryption keys, which is a list of seemingly random numbers and letters. While more private than a name or other demographic information, users could still be identified by their keys over time. Also, any data contained within a block that may have personal information that an individual wishes to keep private, such as medical records for example, may not be well suited for a blockchain as it will be transparent and visible to other users.

Considerations

By using an agreed upon consensus algorithm, collaborative technology like Blockchain promises the ability to improve the business processes that occur between organizations and entities, radically lowering the “cost of trust.” The cost of trust is lowered because there is only one record of a transaction that needs to be kept and all stakeholders trust that record.

In a traditional transaction, all stakeholders have to keep a record of the transaction and in the case of a discrepancy, it was more difficult / costly to determine the accuracy of a record. As a result, Blockchain may offer significantly higher returns for each investment dollar spent than that of traditional internal investments. However, to doing so, it means collaborating with customers, citizens, suppliers and competitors in new ways.

Further research is needed to understand the potential impacts that blockchain could have on SSC as a service provider as well on the usage amounts the GC would require. SSC should consider the identification of client areas where blockchain may be leveraged. It may be required that client departments self-identify spaces which could benefit from blockchain processes. A challenge for SSC will be to identify which partner organizations and enterprise solutions require priority blockchain pilot projects as well as be able to identify departments that emerge as leaders and how they deal with privacy, confidentiality, auditability, performance and scalability.

Lastly, SSC and the GC should consider the capacity issues in resources, network capabilities, and time required to create and maintain blockchain networks on its own. Blockchain is not a pedestrian technology, it will require dedicated teams that are appropriately resourced and financed in order for the technology to be deployed as any other service. SSC may wish to consider looking for private sector companies that specialize in providing Blockchain as a Service (BaaS), and determine the risk and cost benefits of outsourcing this process altogether.


OGD title

Open source | Logiciel libre

References[edit | edit source]

[1] [2]


  1. Plunkett, John. "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying", The Guardian, London, 27 October 2005. Retrieved on 27 October 2005.
  2. Plunkett, John. "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying", The Guardian, London, 27 October 2005.